Ultrasound Int Open 2016; 02(04): E113-E116
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-113776
Original Article
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Testicular Microlithiasis: Patient Compliance in a Two-Year Follow-Up Program

M. R. Pedersen
1   Radiology, Vejle Hospital – Part of Sygehus Lillebaelt, Vejle, Denmark
P. J. S. Osther
2   Urological Research Centre, Fredercia Hospital – Part of Sygehus Lillebaelt, Fredericia, Denmark
F. B. Soerensen
3   Clinical Pathology, Sygehus Lillebalt Vejle Sygehus, Vejle, Denmark
S. R. Rafaelsen
4   Department of Radiology, DCCG South Vejle Hospital, Vejle, Denmark
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

received 19 April 2016

accepted 21 July 2016

Publication Date:
24 August 2016 (online)


Introduction: We present a retrospective 2-year follow-up cohort of 103 men with testicular microlithiasis (TML) and discuss patient compliance and the value of surveillance.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients examined with scrotal ultrasonography (US) in the period from 2008 through 2010 was performed. A total of 103 men with TML were diagnosed and offered US follow-up every 6 months for 2 years. They were retrospectively analyzed regarding demographics and follow-up details, including the development of any kind of malignancy until March 2015, using the Danish Electronic Pathology Registry.

Results: The prevalence of TML was 10.3%. Of the 103 men with TML, 23 (22.3%) had TML in the left testicle, 38 (36.9%) in the right (p=0.002), and 42 (40.8%) had bilateral TML. Patient compliance was low with 11.7% participating in all US follow-up examinations. 5 men presented risk factors (testicular atrophy (N=1) and previous testicular cancer (N=4)), but no cases of testicular malignancy were found in the follow-up period.

Conclusion: The low patient compliance conflicts with the ESUR Scrotal Imaging Subcommittee guidelines that recommend scrotal US follow-up annually for TML until the age of 55 years. The fact that no cancers were found during follow-up using the pathology registry calls the value of follow-up into question.