CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · J Lab Physicians 2022; 14(02): 190-196
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1742285
Original Article

Attenuation of Oxidative Stress, Interleukin-6, High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1, and Fibrinogen with Oral Vitamin D Supplementation in Patients with T2DM having Vitamin D Deficiency

Pullaiah Pasupuleti
1   Department of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India
M.M. Suchitra
1   Department of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India
Aparna R. Bitla
1   Department of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India
Alok Sachan
2   Department of Endocrinology, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India
› Author Affiliations
Funding This work was supported by the University Grants Commission-National Fellowship for Higher Education (UGC-NFHE)-2629, New Delhi and Sri Balaji Aarogya Vara Prasadini Scheme of Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati.


Objectives Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated with oxidative stress and inflammation causes endothelial dysfunction, which promotes cardiovascular risk. Vitamin D with its pleiotropic effect is said to protect against cardiovascular risk. However, with vitamin D deficiency being more prevalent in T2DM, the cardiovascular risk may get compounded.

Materials and Methods An interventional study was conducted on 100 patients with T2DM having vitamin D deficiency (vitamin D < 20 ng/mL), who were given oral supplementation of 2,000 IU/day of vitamin D for a period of 6 months. Serum vitamin D, biomarkers of oxidative stress, malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidized LDL (OxLDL), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), biomarkers of inflammation, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and fibrinogen were measured at baseline and at the end of the third and sixth month of vitamin D supplementation.

Statistical Analysis Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied for comparison between baseline and third- and sixth-month data after vitamin D supplementation. Linear regression by generalized estimating equations (GEE), which grouped repeated measures for each subject and accounted for correlations that may occur from multiple observations within subjects, was applied.

Results Serum vitamin D levels reached normal levels with a significant decrease in OxLDL, hsCRP, IL-6, PAI-1, and fibrinogen levels, with a significant increase in FRAP (p = 0.001) levels at the end of 6 months of vitamin D supplementation. These changes were observed even after correction with glycemic control (HbA1c). However, a significant decrease in MDA was observed only at the end of the sixth month of vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D levels showed a significant negative association with Ox-LDL, Hs-CRP, IL-6, PAI-1, and fibrinogen, even after adjusting for BMI and statin use (p = 0.001).

Conclusion Supplementation of vitamin D for a period of 6 months in patients with T2DM having vitamin D deficiency is beneficial in the attenuation of oxidative stress and inflammation.

Publication History

Article published online:
31 December 2021

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