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Difference in Antihypertensive Medication Pattern in the First Year Compared to More than a Year of Maintenance Hemodialysis: A Northern India Tertiary Care Experience
Introduction There is a high prevalence of hypertension in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Information regarding prevalent pattern of antihypertensive medications will help modify it to prevent future cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, patients on maintenance hemodialysis, aged ≥18 years visiting Nephrology outpatient department (OPD) from April 2019 to May 2020 were included. The patients were divided into two groups based on their dialysis vintage, ≤12 months and >12 months. Their antihypertensive medication patterns and two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography (ECHO) findings were compared. Independent t-test was used to compare continuous variables. One-way analysis of variance was used to study the antihypertensive drug-dosing pattern in both the groups.
Results Out of 250 patients, 131 had a dialysis vintage of ≤12 months, whereas 119 had a vintage of >12 months. There was no significant difference in the number of antihypertensive agents used in either of the vintage groups. Calcium channel blockers (87.02 and 89.07%, respectively, in ≤12 and >12 months' vintage groups) and β blockers (64.12 and 65.54%, respectively, in ≤12 and >12 months' vintage groups) were the commonly used antihypertensive agents. Metoprolol use was higher in ≤12 months' group, whereas carvedilol usage was higher in >12 months' group (p = 0.028). Mean pill burden was more than five in both the groups. Concentric left ventricular hypertrophy was significantly more common in >12 months' group. Renin–angiotensin system (RAS) blocking agent use was limited to 3% of patients.
Conclusion This study shows a high antihypertensive pill burden in dialysis patients likely due to underlying chronic volume overload in addition to the perceived efficacy of certain class of drug in a frequent dosing pattern. Low use of RAS blocking agent was also underlined. This study highlights the need to bring about changes in the antihypertensive prescription pattern in line with the existing evidence.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Article published online:
10 January 2022
© 2022. National Academy of Medical Sciences (India). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
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