CC BY 4.0 · Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2022; 44(02): 100-108
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1741033
Original Article
Obstetrics

Levels and Predictors of Anxiety and Depression in Turkish Pregnant Woman During the Covid-19 Pandemic

Níveis e preditores de ansiedade e depressão em gestantes turcas durante a pandemia de Covid-19
1   Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Bandırma Onyedi Eylül University, Balıkesir, Turkey
,
2   Deparment of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Süleymaniye Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
,
3   Department of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Istanbul Aydın University, Istanbul, Turkey
,
4   Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey University, School of Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Karaman, Turkey
› Institutsangaben

Abstract

Objective In addition to being a medical phenomenon, pandemics affect the individual and society on several levels and lead to disruptions. In the pandemic process, different groups in the population, including pregnant women as a defenseless group, are subjected to psychological threat. The present study aimed to determine the levels of anxiety and depression and related factors in pregnant women during the the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic.

Methods The present cross-sectional study was conducted with 269 pregnant women through face-to-face interviews held in Istanbul, Turkey. Regarding the data collection tools, the Cronbach α reliability coefficient was of 0.90 for the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and of 0.85 for the Beck Depression Inventory.

Results Among the participating pregnant women, 30.5% had mild, 17.5% had moderate, and 5.9% had severe anxiety symptoms, whereas 35.3% had mild, 16.7% had moderate, and 2.2% had severe depression symptoms. We found that those who were concerned about their health had 5.36 times (p = 0.04) more risk of developing anxiety, and 4.82 times (p = 0.01) more risk of developing depression than those who were not concerned. Those who had a history of psychiatric disease had 3.92 times (p = 0.02) more risk of developing anxiety than those without it.

Conclusion We determined that about half of the pregnant women included in the study had some degree of anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. The risk factors for anxiety and depression among the pregnant women were determined as smoking, concerns about health and getting infected with the coronavirus, history of psychiatric disease, and undergoing regular antenatal care.

Resumo

Objetivo Além de ser um fenômeno médico, as pandemias também afetam o indivíduo e a sociedade em vários níveis, e causam perturbações. No processo de pandemia, diferentes grupos da população, incluindo mulheres grávidas como um grupo indefeso, estão sujeitos a ameaças psicológicas. Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar os níveis de ansiedade e depressão e os fatores relacionados em mulheres grávidas durante a pandemia de doença do coronavírus 2019 (coronavirus disease 2019, Covid-19, em inglês).

Métodos Este estudo transversal foi realizado com 269 mulheres grávidas por meio de entrevistas pessoais em Istambul, Turquia. Com relação às ferramentas de coleta de dados, o coeficiente de confiabilidade alfa de Cronbach foi de 0,90 para a Escala de Ansiedade de Beck, e de 0,85 para a Escala de Depressão de Beck.

Resultados Entre as gestantes participantes, 30,5% apresentaram sintomas de ansiedade leves, 17,5%, moderados, e 5,9%, graves, ao passo que 35,3% apresentaram sintomas de depressão leves, 16,7%, moderados, e 2,2%, graves. Verificou-se que as participantes que se preocupavam com sua saúde tinham 5,36 vezes (p = 0,04) mais risco de desenvolver ansiedade e 4,82 vezes (p = 0,01) mais risco de desenvolver depressão do que aquelas que não se preocupavam. As pacientes que tinham histórico de doença psiquiátrica tinham 3,92 vezes (p = 0,02) mais risco de desenvolver ansiedade do que as que não tinham.

Conclusão Determinou-se que cerca de metade das gestantes incluídas no estudo tiveram algum nível de ansiedade e depressão durante a pandemia de Covid-19. Os fatores de risco para ansiedade e depressão nas gestantes foram determinados como tabagismo, preocupação com a saúde e infecção pelo coronavírus, histórico de doença psiquiátrica, e cuidados pré-natais regulares.

Contributions

YAA, BAS, OO, and OD contributed to the design and implementation of the research, to the analysis of the results, and to the writing of the manuscript.




Publikationsverlauf

Eingereicht: 23. Mai 2021

Angenommen: 20. September 2021

Artikel online veröffentlicht:
25. Februar 2022

© 2022. Federação Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, permitting unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction so long as the original work is properly cited. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

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