Subscribe to RSS
Evaluation of Hindlimb Deformity and Posture in Dogs with Grade 2 Medial Patellar Luxation during Awake Computed Tomography Imaging while StandingFunding None.
Objective The aim of this study was to determine the degree of bone deformities and hindlimb postural abnormalities in a standing position in awake Toy poodles with and without grade 2 medial patellar luxation (MPL) using high speed 320-row computed tomography (CT).
Methods The limbs with grade 2 MPL (MPL-G2 group) and without any orthopaedic disorders (control group) were imaged in a standing position, without sedation or anaesthesia, using CT. In MPL-G2 group, images were obtained when the patella was luxated (G2-L group) and reduced (non-luxation, G2-NL group). Bone morphologies of the femur and tibia were quantified three-dimensionally. Hindlimb standing posture was evaluated by measuring femoral rotation and abduction angles, tibial rotation angle, metatarsal rotation angle, foot rotation angle, angle between the femoral anatomical axis and the mechanical axis of hindlimb and stifle joint line convergence angle.
Results There were no significant differences in bone morphologic parameters between the MPL-G2 group (5 limbs) and the control group (6 limbs). In the G2-NL group, there were no significant hindlimb postural abnormalities. In contrast, in the G2-L group, significant hindlimb postural abnormalities including external rotation of femur, internal rotation of tibia and foot, external rotation of tarsal joint, large stifle joint convergence angle, genu varum and toe-in standing were observed.
Conclusion Dogs with grade 2 MPL have no bone deformities but show abnormal standing posture when the patella is luxated.
Y.T. contributed to conception of study, study design, acquisition of data, data analysis and interpretation, drafting or revising of manuscript, approval of submitted manuscript and publicly accountable for relevant content. K.E. contributed to conception of study, study design, data analysis and interpretation, drafting or revising of manuscript, approval of submitted manuscript and publicly accountable for relevant content. A.Y. and K.T. contributed to conception of study, acquisition of data, data analysis and interpretation, drafting or revising of manuscript, approval of submitted manuscript and publicly accountable for relevant content. S.T. and K.H. contributed to conception of study, study design, data analysis and interpretation, drafting or revising of manuscript, approval of submitted manuscript and publicly accountable for relevant content. M.S. and K.A. contributed to conception of study, study design, drafting or revising of manuscript, approval of submitted manuscript and publicly accountable for relevant content.
Received: 28 April 2021
Accepted: 18 October 2021
Article published online:
21 December 2021
© 2021. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany
- 1 LaFond E, Breur GJ, Austin CC. Breed susceptibility for developmental orthopedic diseases in dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2002; 38 (05) 467-477
- 2 Di Dona F, Della Valle G, Fatone G. Patellar luxation in dogs. Vet Med (Auckl) 2018; 9: 23-32
- 3 Žilinčík M, Hluchý M, Takáč L, Ledecký V. Comparison of radiographic measurements of the femur in Yorkshire Terriers with and without medial patellar luxation. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2018; 31 (01) 17-22
- 4 Phetkaew T, Kalpravidh M, Penchome R, Wangdee C. A comparison of angular values of the pelvic limb with normal and medial patellar luxation stifles in Chihuahua dogs using radiography and computed tomography. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2018; 31 (02) 114-123
- 5 Yasukawa S, Edamura K, Tanegashima K. et al. Evaluation of bone deformities of the femur, tibia, and patella in Toy Poodles with medial patellar luxation using computed tomography. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2016; 29 (01) 29-38
- 6 Towle HA, Griffon DJ, Thomas MW, Siegel AM, Dunning D, Johnson A. Pre- and postoperative radiographic and computed tomographic evaluation of dogs with medial patellar luxation. Vet Surg 2005; 34 (03) 265-272
- 7 Sabharwal S, Zhao C. Assessment of lower limb alignment: supine fluoroscopy compared with a standing full-length radiograph. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2008; 90 (01) 43-51
- 8 Colebatch AN, Hart DJ, Zhai G, Williams FM, Spector TD, Arden NK. Effective measurement of knee alignment using AP knee radiographs. Knee 2009; 16 (01) 42-45
- 9 Goodrich ZJ, Norby B, Eichelberger BM. et al. Thoracic limb alignment in healthy labrador retrievers: evaluation of standing versus recumbent frontal plane radiography. Vet Surg 2014; 43 (07) 791-803
- 10 Usui S, Yasuda H, Koketsu Y. Characteristics of obese or overweight dogs visiting private Japanese veterinary clinics. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2016; 6: 338-343
- 11 Aulakh KS, Dongaonkar KR, Barnes K. et al. Influence of orthopedic examination on lameness scores and interobserver and intraobserver agreement in dogs with naturally occurring elbow osteoarthritis. Vet Surg 2020; 49 (03) 455-462
- 12 Fettig AA, Rand WM, Sato AF, Solano M, McCarthy RJ, Boudrieau RJ. Observer variability of tibial plateau slope measurement in 40 dogs with cranial cruciate ligament-deficient stifle joints. Vet Surg 2003; 32 (05) 471-478
- 13 Jaegger GH, Marcellin-Little DJ, Levine D. Reliability of goniometry in Labrador Retrievers. Am J Vet Res 2002; 63 (07) 979-986
- 14 Petazzoni M, Jaeger GH. Clinical goniometry, radiographic measurements of the femur. In: Atlas of Clinical Goniometry and Radiographic Measurements of the Canine Pelvic Limb. 2 nd Ed.. Milano: Merial; 2008: 22-32 ,34–55
- 15 Hirschmann A, Buck FM, Fucentese SF, Pfirrmann CWA. Upright CT of the knee: the effect of weight-bearing on joint alignment. Eur Radiol 2015; 25 (11) 3398-3404
- 16 Paley D. Normal lower limb alignment and joint orientation. In: Principles of deformity correction. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 2003: 1-18
- 17 Micicoi G, Jacquet C, Sharma A. et al. Neutral alignment resulting from tibial vara and opposite femoral valgus is the main morphologic pattern in healthy middle-aged patients: an exploration of a 3D-CT database. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021; 29 (03) 849-858
- 18 Zahn RK, Renner L, Perka C, Hommel H. Weight-bearing radiography depends on limb loading. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2019; 27 (05) 1470-1476
- 19 Patel S, Malhotra K, Cullen NP, Singh D, Goldberg AJ, Welck MJ. Defining reference values for the normal tibiofibular syndesmosis in adults using weight-bearing CT. Bone Joint J 2019; 101-B (03) 348-352
- 20 Harasen G. Patellar luxation. Can Vet J 2006; 47 (08) 817-818
- 21 Newman M, Voss K. Computed tomographic evaluation of femoral and tibial conformation in English Staffordshire Bull Terriers with and without congenital medial patellar luxation. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2017; 30 (03) 191-199
- 22 Thienpont E, Schwab PE, Cornu O, Bellemans J, Victor J. Bone morphotypes of the varus and valgus knee. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2017; 137 (03) 393-400
- 23 Mondanellli N, Giron F, Losco M, Buzzi R, Aglietti P. Opening wedge high tibial osteotomy using a monoaxial dynamic external fixater. Knee Sports Traumatol Artyrosc 2017; 25: 306-313