CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2022; 35(03): 143-151
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1740607
Original Research

Evaluation of Hindlimb Deformity and Posture in Dogs with Grade 2 Medial Patellar Luxation during Awake Computed Tomography Imaging while Standing

Yuma Tomo
1   Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Bioresource and Sciences, Nihon University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan
,
Kazuya Edamura
1   Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Bioresource and Sciences, Nihon University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan
,
Atsushi Yamazaki
1   Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Bioresource and Sciences, Nihon University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan
,
Koji Tanegashima
1   Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Bioresource and Sciences, Nihon University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan
,
Mamiko Seki
1   Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Bioresource and Sciences, Nihon University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan
,
Kazushi Asano
1   Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Bioresource and Sciences, Nihon University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan
,
Selena Tinga
2   Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States
,
Kei Hayashi
2   Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States
› Author Affiliations
Funding None.

Abstract

Objective The aim of this study was to determine the degree of bone deformities and hindlimb postural abnormalities in a standing position in awake Toy poodles with and without grade 2 medial patellar luxation (MPL) using high speed 320-row computed tomography (CT).

Methods The limbs with grade 2 MPL (MPL-G2 group) and without any orthopaedic disorders (control group) were imaged in a standing position, without sedation or anaesthesia, using CT. In MPL-G2 group, images were obtained when the patella was luxated (G2-L group) and reduced (non-luxation, G2-NL group). Bone morphologies of the femur and tibia were quantified three-dimensionally. Hindlimb standing posture was evaluated by measuring femoral rotation and abduction angles, tibial rotation angle, metatarsal rotation angle, foot rotation angle, angle between the femoral anatomical axis and the mechanical axis of hindlimb and stifle joint line convergence angle.

Results There were no significant differences in bone morphologic parameters between the MPL-G2 group (5 limbs) and the control group (6 limbs). In the G2-NL group, there were no significant hindlimb postural abnormalities. In contrast, in the G2-L group, significant hindlimb postural abnormalities including external rotation of femur, internal rotation of tibia and foot, external rotation of tarsal joint, large stifle joint convergence angle, genu varum and toe-in standing were observed.

Conclusion Dogs with grade 2 MPL have no bone deformities but show abnormal standing posture when the patella is luxated.

Authors' Contributions

Y.T. contributed to conception of study, study design, acquisition of data, data analysis and interpretation, drafting or revising of manuscript, approval of submitted manuscript and publicly accountable for relevant content. K.E. contributed to conception of study, study design, data analysis and interpretation, drafting or revising of manuscript, approval of submitted manuscript and publicly accountable for relevant content. A.Y. and K.T. contributed to conception of study, acquisition of data, data analysis and interpretation, drafting or revising of manuscript, approval of submitted manuscript and publicly accountable for relevant content. S.T. and K.H. contributed to conception of study, study design, data analysis and interpretation, drafting or revising of manuscript, approval of submitted manuscript and publicly accountable for relevant content. M.S. and K.A. contributed to conception of study, study design, drafting or revising of manuscript, approval of submitted manuscript and publicly accountable for relevant content.




Publication History

Received: 28 April 2021

Accepted: 18 October 2021

Article published online:
21 December 2021

© 2021. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)

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