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Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults Caused by Cervical Artery Dissection—A Retrospective Study
Background Ischemic stroke is one of the most common causes of death and disability. The most common independent cause is cervical artery dissection, which represents around 20% of all cases of ischemic stroke in young adults. Risk factors for dissection include male gender, migraine (particularly with aura), hyperhomocysteinemia, recent infection, recent history of minor cervical trauma, young age, current smoking status, increased leucocyte count, and shortened activated partial thromboplastin time, whereas hypercholesterolemia and being overweight appear protective.
Patients and Methods This retrospective study was based on data of all patients aged 18 to 49 who were hospitalized in the University Medical Centre Maribor for ischemic stroke between 2010 and 2019 inclusive. The results of the research were analyzed by IBM SPSS Statistics 28 software. For statistical significance, a cut-off value of p < 0.05 was used.
Results The study includes 196 patients with 198 events of ischemic stroke. Dissection of cervical arteries was presented in 16 (8.2%) cases. The presence of arterial hypertension proved to have a relation with the presence of a dissection; patients with dissection are less likely to suffer from arterial hypertension. Duration of hospitalization in the group with dissection lasted significantly longer than in the group without dissection.
Conclusions Dissection of cervical or intracranial artery is an important cause of ischemic stroke, especially in young adults. Therefore, it should be considered in young adults with presentation of stroke who lack traditional and modifiable risk factors.
Keywordsischemic stroke - dissection - stroke - cervical artery dissection - young adults - risk factors
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The ethics committee from University Medical Centre in Maribor, Slovenia approved the study (UKC-MB-KME-45/21).
All authors contributed to the study conception and data collection. Analyses were performed by L.J. and R.A. The first draft of the manuscript was written by L.J. and R.A. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Article published online:
31 December 2021
© 2021. International College of Angiology. This article is published by Thieme.
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