CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · J Lab Physicians 2022; 14(02): 202-209
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1739539
Original Article

Acquaintance and Awareness of Budding Physicians toward Antimicrobials' Use: Need of the Hour

Apurva Agrawal
1   Department of Pharmacology, Rajasthan University of Health Science, RNT Medical College, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
Chandan Singh Chauhan
2   Rajasthan University of Health Science, RNT Medical College, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
Krishna Boliwal
3   Department of Anesthesiology, Rajasthan University of Health Science, RNT Medical College, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
Ashish Sharma
4   Department of Biochemistry, Geetanjali University, Geetanjali Medical College, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
› Author Affiliations
Funding None.


Background Development of new antibiotics has been slow in the past decades, despite the urgent need. Final-year undergraduate students, interns, and postgraduate students are future prescribers of antimicrobials. It is important they have proper knowledge and attitude toward antibiotic prescription, so that antibiotic resistance could be dealt wisely.

Aims The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of undergraduate, interns, and postgraduate medical students regarding antimicrobials, antibiotics resistance, and associated factors.

Methodology A total of 150 final-year medical students, interns, and resident doctors were included, 50 in each group. Participants were contacted individually and were asked to fill a prevalidated questionnaire. Information was collected on three broad categories: basic information about antimicrobials, knowledge regarding treatment of common infections, and belief and attitude toward antimicrobials. Percentages were calculated for the categorical data and chi-squared test was used for univariate analysis of the categorical data, where p-value less than 0.05 was considered to be significant.

Results Precisely, 80.67% were able to answer which type of infections need antibiotics; 19.33% responded that both viral and bacterial infections need antibiotics; 44.67% preferred using broad-spectrum antibiotics for definitive treatment; 28.66% answered macrolides as most commonly used for upper respiratory tract infection; 56% considered fluoroquinolones are most commonly used for urinary tract infection with p-value less than 0.05 between the groups; 43.33% were unaware of the infection control program; while 72.66% were unaware about the antibiotic policy in their institute.

Conclusion The majority had sufficient basic knowledge about antibiotics, yet there were areas for concern. Study findings may help to formulate new learning objectives for medical students to inculcate proper knowledge and attitude toward antibiotic prescription.

Study Location

RNT Medical College, Rajasthan University of Health Science, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India.

Publication History

Article published online:
23 November 2021

© 2021. The Indian Association of Laboratory Physicians. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (

Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
A-12, 2nd Floor, Sector 2, Noida-201301 UP, India

  • References

  • 1 O'Neill J. Antimicrobial Resistance: Tackling a Crisis for the Health and Wealth of Nations. Review on Antimicrobial Resistance; London, UK: 2014. ; Accessed Oct 12, 2021 online:
  • 2 Rademacher J, Welte T. [New antibiotics - standstill or progress]. Med Klin Intensivmed Notf Med 2017; 112 (03) 206-213
  • 3 Projan SJ, Shlaes DM. Antibacterial drug discovery: is it all downhill from here?. Clin Microbiol Infect 2004; 10 (Suppl. 04) 18-22
  • 4 Barriere SL. Clinical, economic and societal impact of antibiotic resistance. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2015; 16 (02) 151-153
  • 5 Dellit TH, Owens RC, McGowan Jr JE. et al; Infectious Diseases Society of America, Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America guidelines for developing an institutional program to enhance antimicrobial stewardship. Clin Infect Dis 2007; 44 (02) 159-177
  • 6 Weier N, Thursky K, Zaidi STR. Antimicrobial knowledge and confidence amongst final year medical students in Australia. PLoS One 2017; 12 (08) e0182460
  • 7 Wasserman S, Potgieter S, Shoul E. et al. South African medical students' perceptions and knowledge about antibiotic resistance and appropriate prescribing: Are we providing adequate training to future prescribers?. S Afr Med J 2017; 107 (05) 405-410
  • 8 Brinkman DJ, Tichelaar J, Graaf S, Otten RHJ, Richir MC, van Agtmael MA. Do final-year medical students have sufficient prescribing competencies? A systematic literature review. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2018; 84 (04) 615-635
  • 9 Thakolkaran N, Shetty AV, D'Souza NDR, Shetty AK. Antibiotic prescribing knowledge, attitudes, and practice among physicians in teaching hospitals in South India. J Family Med Prim Care 2017; 6 (03) 526-532
  • 10 Gupta MK, Vohra C, Raghav P. Assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and practices about antibiotic resistance among medical students in India. J Family Med Prim Care 2019; 8 (09) 2864-2869
  • 11 Haque M, Rahman NAA, McKimm J. et al. Antibiotic use: a cross-sectional study evaluating the understanding, usage and perspectives of medical students and pathfinders of a public defence university in Malaysia. Antibiotics (Basel) 2019; 8 (03) 154
  • 12 Tanday S. Resisting the use of antibiotics for viral infections. Lancet Respir Med 2016; 4 (03) 179
  • 13 Charani E, Cooke J, Holmes A. Antibiotic stewardship programmes–what's missing?. J Antimicrob Chemother 2010; 65 (11) 2275-2277
  • 14 National Medical Commission. Competency based undergraduate curriculum for the Indian Medical Graduate 2018. ;Vol 1:p 140. Accessed Oct 12, 2021
  • 15 Pulcini C, Gyssens IC. How to educate prescribers in antimicrobial stewardship practices. Virulence 2013; 4 (02) 192-202
  • 16 Mersha AG. Attitude and perception of medical interns about antimicrobial resistance: a multi center cross-sectional study in Ethiopia. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2018; 7: 149
  • 17 Dyar OJ, Pulcini C, Howard P, Nathwani D. ESGAP (ESCMID Study Group for Antibiotic Policies). European medical students: a first multicentre study of knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of antibiotic prescribing and antibiotic resistance. J Antimicrob Chemother 2014; 69 (03) 842-846