CC BY 4.0 · European Dental Research and Biomaterials Journal 2021; 02(02): 047-051
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1739398
Original Article

Incorporation of Hydroxyapatite and Calcium Triphosphate in the Epoxy Resin-Based Sealer

1   College of Dentistry, King Faisal University, Al Hofuf, Saudi Arabia
2   Royal Commission Health Services, Al-Jubail, Saudi Arabia
3   Dental Hospital King Faisal University, Al Hofuf, Saudi Arabia
4   College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
› Author Affiliations


Objective This study aims to assess and compare the influence of hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) nanoparticles on a commercially available epoxy resinbased sealer, focusing on porosity and push-out bond strength.

Materials and Methods This work was classified into a control group and two experimental groups. In each experimental group, the sealer was mixed with 2.5 wt.% of HA and TCP nanoparticles. Thirty extracted single-rooted teeth were utilized. After sectioning the crowns, the remaining roots of 15 teeth were used, up to 40 to 0.06, using a K3 rotary system. Smear layers were removed with 3 mL of 17% EDTA applied for 60 seconds. Then, the canals were irrigated with 3 mL of 2.25% NaOCl and 5 mL of distilled water. The strength of push-out bonds was tested via an Instron universal testing machine on a 2 mm section acquired from obturated canals. Data were assessed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc tests at a significance level of p < 0.05.

Results A nonsignificant difference (p > 0.05) was evident when the three groups were crosschecked in terms of void volume and bond strength. Micro-CT evaluations revealed the lowest volume of voids to be 0.1152 mm3 (2.69%) for the HA group compared with the control group 0.1818 mm3 (3.9%) and the TCP group 0.2194 mm3 (4.33%). Mean bond strength values were 4.18 ± 1.77 MPa for group 1 (control), 4.19 ± 1.54 MPa for group 2 (HA 2.5%) and 3.76 ± 1.95 MPa for group 3 (TCP 2.5%). Groups 1 and 3 showed both cohesive and a mixed type of failure, while group 2 showed adhesive and a mixed type of bond failure.

Conclusion Within the limitations of the study, incorporation of 2.5 wt% HA and TCP nanoparticles into AH Plus did not significantly affect the percentage volume of voids and the bond strength negatively.

Publication History

Article published online:
13 December 2021

© 2021. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, permitting unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction so long as the original work is properly cited. (

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