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Epidemiology of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers in a Tertiary Hospital in South India
Introduction There has been an increase in the incidence of malignancies in young Indians, and there is no data reflecting the trend and profile of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers.
Objectives This study was aimed to ascertain the epidemiology of AYA cancers in a tertiary care center in south India and the trend of AYA cancers during the past 9 years.
Materials and Methods All patients aged 15 to 39 years with the diagnosis of cancer who were registered and received treatment with M.S. Ramaiah Hospital during a 9-year period from January 2011 to December 2019 were included. Basic demographic information on age, gender was available along with address and contact information. Using cancer site and morphology codes, the cancers were grouped by the ICD-O coding system of AYA cancers and their clinical information on disease and treatment status were collected retrospectively and analyzed.
Results Of the total 946 registered AYA cancer patients, majority of AYA cancer were in age group of 35 to 39 years (39%) and females (58%). When analyzing the data and dividing the AYA population into early (15–24 years) and late (25–39 years), we found that whereas the majority of the patients had hematolymphoid malignancies (48%) in the early group (15–24 years), the late group (25–39 years) had more carcinomas (68%). The percentage distribution of AYA cancers among the study population, lymphoma and leukemia contribute 11% and 15%, respectively, to the patient load and still the carcinomas formed the bulk (58%) of the population. It is interesting to know that breast, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies constituted 17.75%, 14.16%, and 14.69% individually.
Conclusion AYA oncology consists of a heterogeneous population and the profile differs by geography, sex, and other factors. There has been limited improvement in the past decade but there is a lot more to be done. To assess the problem, we have to identify and characterize the problem and look at the epidemiology of this population. This will require multicenter and international studies with focus on improving outcomes as in pediatric inspired ALL protocols. The trials should be started at local levels to ensure maximum participation. We need to generate data on epidemiology and channel our resources properly to save this precious but so called lost tribe of oncology.
Article published online:
13 August 2021
© 2021. Indian Society of Medical and Paediatric Oncology. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial-License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
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