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Outcome of Treatment in Elderly Myeloma—A Single-Centre Experience
Introduction Multiple myeloma (MM) accounts for approximately 1% of all cancers and 10% of all hematologic malignancies. In our institution, we see around 200 patients with myeloma every year. We present our experience with multiple myeloma in the patients aged more than 60 years.
Objectives This is a retrospective study of 300 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients above 60 years of age treated in the Department of Medical Oncology, Regional Cancer Center, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India, during the period between 2014 and 2017. The medical records of the patients were studied and following data were collected: demographic and clinical details, diagnostic and staging workup, primary treatment, response assessment, relapse, and survival. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method.
Results A total of 300 patients were included in the study. The median age was 66 years with a male-to-female ratio of 1.4:1. The common clinical presentations were backache (134), fatigue (49), lower respiratory infection (20), and paraparesis (14). Monoclonal protein was immunoglobulin (Ig)-G in 199 patients (66.6%), IgA in 52 patients (17.4%), IgM in 2 patients, and IgD in 1 patient. Light-chain disease was seen in 42 patients (14%). One hundred and sixty patients (53.5%) had ISS stage III. Only 285 patients received treatment, of which 203 (67.8%) received bortezomib-based regimen, - bortezomib and dexamethasone (BD; 33.4%); bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (BLD; 19.7%); bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone (VCD; 8.7%); bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone (BTD; 2.3%); and bortezomib, melphalan, and prednisolone (3.7%). Nonbortezomib-based regimens used were melphalan and prednisolone (MP) alone or with thalidomide or lenalidomide (15%), lenalidomide and dexamethasone (LD; 10.4%), and thalidomide and dexamethasone (TD; 2%). Response assessment was done as per IMWG guidelines. Fifty-seven (26.3%) patients achieved complete response (CR), 94 (43.3%) achieved very good partial response (VGPR), 19 (8.8%) attained partial response (PR), 15 (5.6%) had stable disease, and 46 (15.4%) developed progressive disease. With bortezomib-based regimens, 119 patients (58.3%) achieved CR/VGPR, and with non-bortezomib based regimens, 42 patients (51.2%) achieved CR/VGPR. One hundred and forty-three patients (47.8%) received maintenance therapy of which 79 received maintenance with bortezomib, 49 with lenalidomide, and 15 with thalidomide. The average duration of maintenance was 24 months. Second-line chemotherapy regimens were used in 37 patients. Agents used were MP, LD, TD, and VCD. With second-line treatment, 15 patients achieved VGPR, 10 patients achieved partial response, and 25 patients developed progressive disease. Third-line chemotherapy regimens were used in 22 patients and the regimens used were pomalidomide and dexamethasone, MP, TD, LD, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone and carfilzomib and dexamethasone. At a median follow-up of 34 months, the 2-year overall survival (OS) was 68%. The median progression-free survival was 21 months. The 2-year OS for patients receiving initial bortezomib-based regimen was 67.8% and non-bortezomib based regimen was 68% which was similar.
Conclusion In this study, CR/VGPR rates and 2-year OS in patients treated with bortezomib and non-bortezomib based regimens were not statistically significant.
Article published online:
13 August 2021
© 2021. Indian Society of Medical and Paediatric Oncology. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial-License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
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