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Loes Score: Clinical and Radiological Profile of 22 Patients of X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy: Case Series from a Single Center
Introduction X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a devastating disease with a wide spectrum of presentation ranging from asymptomatic to a rapidly progressive childhood cerebral form. The gene responsible for adrenoleukodystrophy is ABCD1 gene, required for β oxidation of fatty acids in various tissues. While biochemical and molecular techniques are available to confirm the diagnosis, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilizing Loes score has been used for both prognosis and timely direction of hematopoietic stem cell therapy.
Materials and Methods During the study period of 2016 to 2020, 22 individuals including 19 individuals with features suggestive of X-ALD and 3 asymptomatic siblings were evaluated from a single center in North India. After biochemical and molecular confirmation of the disease, detailed clinical and radiological findings using MRI brain were documented. A radiological scoring pattern proposed by Loes was employed to identify the severity of the disorder.
Results The most common clinical presentations were visual difficulty and muscular weakness (58%). All symptomatic individuals had classic neuroimaging findings in the form of hyperintensities involving the parieto-occipital area and splenium of corpus callosum. Severe involvement in the form of global atrophy was observed in 52.6% of individuals. Asymptomatic siblings also showed neurological involvement based on MRI with highest Loes score of 9 in one individual.
Conclusion This case series describes the clinical and radiological profile and employment of Loes score in individuals with X-ALD. Early identification of asymptomatic individuals by neuroimaging and use of Loes severity score for monitoring and disease progression will help in making therapeutic decisions in a timely manner.
Keywordsadrenoleukodystrophy - Loes score - magnetic resonance imaging - very long chain fatty acids
28 July 2021 (online)
© 2021. Indian Radiological Association. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial-License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
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