CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Indian J Radiol Imaging 2021; 31(02): 318-322
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1734227
Original Article

LDCT Screening in Smokers in India—A Pilot, Proof-of-Concept Study

Sanghavi Parang
1  Picture This By Jankharia, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Jankharia Bhavin
1  Picture This By Jankharia, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
› Author Affiliations
Funding Sources None.


Aim The aim of the study is to assess the effectiveness of low dose CT scan (LDCT) to pick up nodules and carcinomas in smokers in India.

Methods A retrospective study of 350 smokers scanned with LDCT was performed in a private practice center in Mumbai, India. Their demographic profile, smoking history in pack-years, lung nodules, and associated findings/superimposed complications were recorded and analyzed. The nodules were assigned the appropriate Lung-RADS category and results of the patients undergoing biopsy were recorded.

Results Of the 350 smokers, 15 (4%) were women . The mean age was 61 years (32–90 years) with a mean smoking history of 22 pack-years (1–160 pack-years). Lung nodules were found in 335 (93%) smokers, with Lung-RADS category 1 nodules seen in 117 (36%), category 2 in 133 (41%), category 3 in 29 (9%), and category 4 in 46 (14%) of positive scans. Seven of the category 4 patients who underwent biopsy showed carcinoma, with a mean smoking history of 30 pack years. Superimposed interstitial lung disease, airways diseases, and infections were also seen in the scans and recorded.

Discussion It has been proven in the Western world that screening for lung cancer with LDCT saves lives with early pick-up of malignant nodules. This pilot study from India, shows that even in a tuberculosis endemic country, LDCT picks up malignant lung nodules early and saves lives.

Conclusion Smokers with a more than 20 pack years history have a higher incidence of lung nodules, which may represent carcinoma, in a tuberculosis endemic country like India, as has been proven in other countries in the Western world. Larger studies and trials may be performed to elaborate further on this proof-of-concept study.

Publication History

Publication Date:
28 July 2021 (online)

© 2021. Indian Radiological Association. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial-License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (

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