CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Indian J Radiol Imaging 2021; 31(02): 421-440
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1734222
Review Article

Indian College of Radiology and Imaging Evidence-Based Guidelines for Percutaneous Image-Guided Biliary Procedures

Kumble Seetharama Madhusudhan
1  Department of Radiodiagnosis and Interventional Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi, India
2  Department of Radiology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology (Thiruvananthapuram), Kerala, India
3  Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College (Vellore), Tamil Nadu, India
› Author Affiliations
Funding None.


Percutaneous biliary interventions are among the commonly performed nonvascular radiological interventions. Most common of these interventions is the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage for malignant biliary obstruction. Other biliary procedures performed include percutaneous cholecystostomy, biliary stenting, drainage for bile leaks, and various procedures like balloon dilatation, stenting, and large-bore catheter drainage for bilioenteric or post-transplant anastomotic strictures. Although these procedures are being performed for ages, no standard guidelines have been formulated. This article attempts at preparing guidelines for performing various percutaneous image-guided biliary procedures along with discussion on the published evidence in this field.

Publication History

Publication Date:
28 July 2021 (online)

© 2021. Indian Radiological Association. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial-License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (

Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Private Ltd.
A-12, Second Floor, Sector -2, NOIDA -201301, India