CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol 2021; 42(03): 240-246
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1732851
Review Article

Cancer Treatment–Induced Bone Loss and Role of Denosumab in Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer: A Narrative Review

Deepak Dabkara
1   Department of Medical Oncology, Tata Medical Center, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
› Author Affiliations
Funding None.


Bone loss is an important complication of prostate cancer and its associated treatments, especially androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). There is a 5 to 10 times increased loss of bone mineral density (BMD) in men receiving ADT with yearly 4 to 13% BMD loss. The risk of fracture increases yearly by 5 to 8% with ADT. ADT associated bone loss of 10 to 15% of BMD doubles the risk of fractures. Hence, BMD evaluation through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and evaluation of individual fracture risk assessed before initiating ADT. The use of vitamin D, calcium, bisphosphonates, and denosumab has shown improved bone health in men with prostate cancer receiving ADT. Denosumab 60 mg is approved to increase bone mass in men at high risk for fractures receiving ADT for nonmetastatic prostate cancer. Denosumab has shown improvement of 5.6% BMD at 2 years in nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients, with significant improvements seen at the total hip, femoral neck, and distal third of the radius. Denosumab has shown a 62% decreased incidence of new vertebral fractures at 36 months. Furthermore, denosumab delays the onset of bone metastases in high-risk nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients. Denosumab can be preferred over other bone modifying agents owing to several advantages, such as subcutaneous administration and no requirement of hospitalization, no dose modifications in renal impairment and less incidence of acute phase anaphylactic reactions. We review the available evidence of denosumab for managing bone loss in nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients. The relevant articles used in this narrative review were obtained through general search on google and PubMed using the key terms “non-metastatic prostate cancer,” “denosumab,” “bone loss,” “bone mineral density,” “fracture,” “CTIBL,” and “chemotherapy induced bone loss.”

Publication History

Article published online:
20 September 2021

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