CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Homeopathy 2022; 111(01): 010-021
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1732305
Review Article

The Clinical and Biological Effects of Homeopathically Prepared Signaling Molecules: A Scoping Review

1   Directorate of AYUSH, Health & Family Welfare Department, Govt of Delhi, New Delhi, India
Meeta Gupta
1   Directorate of AYUSH, Health & Family Welfare Department, Govt of Delhi, New Delhi, India
Ankit Gupta
1   Directorate of AYUSH, Health & Family Welfare Department, Govt of Delhi, New Delhi, India
2   International Institute for Integrated Medicine, Kingston, United Kingdom
› Author Affiliations


Background Signaling molecules such as cytokines and interleukins are key mediators for the immune response in responding to internal or external stimuli. Homeopathically prepared signaling molecules have been used therapeutically for about five decades. However, these types of products are not available in many countries and their usage by homoeopaths is also infrequent. The aim of this scoping review is to map the available pre-clinical and clinical data related to the therapeutic use of homeopathically prepared signaling molecules.

Methods We conducted a scoping review of clinical and pre-clinical studies of therapeutically used signaling molecules that have been prepared in accordance with an officially recognized homeopathic pharmacopoeia. Articles in peer-reviewed journals reporting original clinical or pre-clinical research of homeopathically prepared signaling molecules such as interleukins, cytokines, antibodies, growth factors, neuropeptides and hormones, were eligible. Non-English language papers were excluded, unless we were able to obtain an English translation. An appraisal of eligible studies took place by rating the direction of the outcomes on a five-point scale. The quality of the papers was not systematically assessed.

Results Twenty-eight eligible papers, reporting findings for four different manufacturers' products, were identified and reviewed. Seventeen papers reported pre-clinical studies, and 11 reported clinical studies (six experimental, five observational). A wide range of signaling molecules, as well as normal T-cell expressed specific nucleic acids, were used. A majority of the products (21 of 28) contained two or more signaling molecules. The most common clinical indications were psoriasis, vitiligo, rheumatoid arthritis, respiratory allergies, polycystic ovary syndrome, and herpes. The direction of the outcomes was positive in 26 papers and unclear in two papers.

Conclusion This scoping review found that there is a body of evidence on the use of homeopathically prepared signaling molecules. From a homeopathy perspective, these substances appear to have therapeutic potential. Further steps to explore this potential are warranted.

Authors' Contributions

Both R.K. Manchanda and R. van Haselen were involved in the planning, conduct, analysis, and writing of the article. Drs. M. Gupta and A. Gupta were involved in the assessment of the literature papers and in the writing of the article. All authors agree to the contents of the manuscript.

Supplementary Material

Publication History

Received: 23 March 2021

Accepted: 04 June 2021

Publication Date:
19 November 2021 (online)

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