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Risk Factors of Arterial Events in Patients with Venous Thromboembolism: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisFunding The authors declare that they have not received any funding for this research.
Background If recent studies suggested that arterial ischemic events in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) are more frequent than in the general population without VTE, whether patients with VTE have different risk factors of arterial events than classic known cardiovascular risk factors remain undefined. Through this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to identify risk factors of arterial ischemic events in patients with VTE.
Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases to identify cohort studies published between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2020, reporting risk factors of arterials ischemic events in patients with VTE. Random-effect models meta-analysis served to get the pooled hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of each risk factor identified.
Results We screened 1,467 records of which 18 were finally included in systematic review and 10 in meta-analyses. Adjusted HR for 9 factors were included in meta-analysis. Male gender (HR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.28–1.49), diabetes (HR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.28–2.12), hypertension (HR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.04–1.84), previous atherothrombotic event (HR: 3.22; 95% CI: 1.12–9.23), chronic kidney disease (HR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.05–1.88), cancer (HR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.41–2.09), and unprovoked VTE (HR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.37–2.57) were the identified risk factors of arterial events in VTE population after meta-analysis.
Conclusion Risk factors of arterial events in patients with VTE include usual cardiovascular risk factors and other risk factors that are related to VTE such as cancer and unprovoked VTE.
Keywordsarterial events - cardiovascular disease - venous thromboembolism - risk factor - meta-analysis
Conception, designing of the protocol: S.N., F.C., K.L., C.T. Literature search, studies selection, data extraction: S.N., C.H. Writing of the first draft: S.N. Data management, data synthesis and analysis: S.N. Critical revision: S.N., C.T., F.C., K.L., L.B. Final revision and approval of the final version: All authors. Guarantor of the review: S.N.
Received: 07 April 2021
Accepted: 14 June 2021
Article published online:
11 July 2021
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