Am J Perinatol
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1731453
Original Article

What Facial Features Does the Pediatrician Look to Decide That a Newborn Is Feeling Pain?

Giselle Valério Teixeira da Silva
1  Division of Neonatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics at Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
,
1  Division of Neonatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics at Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Juliana do Carmo Azevedo Soares
1  Division of Neonatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics at Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Lucas Pereira Carlini
2  Image Processing Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Centro Universitario FEI, São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Tatiany Marcondes Heiderich
1  Division of Neonatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics at Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Rafael Nobre Orsi
2  Image Processing Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Centro Universitario FEI, São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Rita de Cássia Xavier Balda
1  Division of Neonatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics at Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Carlos Eduardo Thomaz
2  Image Processing Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Centro Universitario FEI, São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Ruth Guinsburg
1  Division of Neonatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics at Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
› Author Affiliations
Funding The study received its financial support from Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (grant numbers: 2012/50157-0 and 2018/13076-9).

Abstract

Objective The study aimed to analyze the gaze fixation of pediatricians during the decision process regarding the presence/absence of pain in pictures of newborn infants.

Study Design Experimental study, involving 38 pediatricians (92% females, 34.6 ± 9.0 years, 22 neonatologists) who evaluated 20 pictures (two pictures of each newborn: one at rest and one during a painful procedure), presented in random order for each participant. The Tobii-TX300 equipment tracked eye movements in four areas of interest of each picture (AOI): mouth, eyes, forehead, and nasolabial furrow. Pediatricians evaluated the intensity of pain with a verbal analogue score from 0 to 10 (0 = no pain; 10 = maximum pain). The number of pictures in which pediatricians fixed their gaze, the number of gaze fixations, and the total and average time of gaze fixations were compared among the AOI by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The visual-tracking parameters of the pictures' evaluations were also compared by ANOVA according to the pediatricians' perception of pain presence: moderate/severe (score = 6–10), mild (score = 3–5), and absent (score = 0–2). The association between the total time of gaze fixations in the AOI and pain perception was assessed by logistic regression.

Results In the 20 newborn pictures, the mean number of gaze fixations was greater in the mouth, eyes, and forehead than in the nasolabial furrow. Also, the average total time of gaze fixations was greater in the mouth and forehead than in the nasolabial furrow. Controlling for the time of gaze fixation in the AOI, each additional second in the time of gaze fixation in the mouth (odds ratio [OR]: 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08–1.46) and forehead (OR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.02–1.33) was associated with an increase in the chance of moderate/severe pain presence in the neonatal facial picture.

Conclusion When challenged to say whether pain is present in pictures of newborn infants' faces, pediatricians fix their gaze preferably in the mouth. The longer duration of gaze fixation in the mouth and forehead is associated with an increase perception that moderate/severe pain is present.

Key Points

  • Neonatal pain assessment is intrinsically subjective.

  • Visual tracking identifies the focus of attention of individuals.

  • Adults' gaze in neonates' mouth and forehead is associated with pain perception.

Authors' Contributions

G.V.T.S., J.C.A.S., T.M.H., and R.C.X.B. supported in study design, patient screening and enrollment, data collection, data analysis and interpretation, and revising the manuscript. M.C.M.B., C.E.T., and R.G. involved in the conception and design of the study, data analysis and interpretation, and writing the manuscript. L.P.C. and R.N.O. focused on study design, data collection, data analysis and interpretation, and for revising the manuscript.




Publication History

Received: 22 March 2021

Accepted: 12 May 2021

Publication Date:
30 June 2021 (online)

© 2021. Thieme. All rights reserved.

Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.
333 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10001, USA