CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Journal of Clinical Interventional Radiology ISVIR
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1730868
Review Article

Review of Applied Anatomy, Hemodynamics, and Endovascular Management of Ectopic Varices

1  Interventional Radiology Subdivision, Department of Radiology, Geetanjali Medical College & Hospital, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
Dharav Kheradia
2  Medical Trust Hospital, Cochin, Kerala, India
Shakti Parvathy Gopalkrishnan
2  Medical Trust Hospital, Cochin, Kerala, India
Rahul K. R.
3  Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India
Mohammed Rafeeque P. K.
4  Meitra Hospital, Kozhikode, Kerala, India
› Author Affiliations


Portal hypertension leads to the opening up of collateral pathways to bypass the occlusion or resistance in the portal system. Ectopic varices are formed by such collaterals at many various sites along the gastrointestinal tract other than the usual location, that is, gastroesophageal region. Early diagnosis of ectopic varices needs strong clinical suspicion and contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan as endoscopy may often fail to pinpoint a source. In contrast to gastric varices where the understanding of the disease, as well as endovascular management, is widely studied and documented, the same is not true for ectopic varices due to low incidence. Understanding the applied anatomy and hemodynamic classification is important to decide the most suitable therapy. Interventional radiological procedures are aimed at either decompressing the varices or obliterating them and depend on the patency of the portal system, underlying etiology, and local expertise.

Publication History

Publication Date:
06 July 2021 (online)

© 2021. Indian Society of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial-License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (

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