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Hematological Profile of HIV-Infected Patients on First-Line Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Its Correlation With CD4 Count
Introduction Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a state of profound immunodeficiency. Disorders of hematopoietic system are a common but often overlooked complication of HIV infection. This can manifest at any stage of the disease but more commonly in the advanced stage with low CD4 count. Anemia is the most common hematological abnormality in HIV patients and prevalence ranges from 1.3 to 95%. As HIV disease progresses, the prevalence and severity of anemia also increase. Hence, this study was undertaken to assess the hematological parameters of HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) at different treatment durations with the hope to improve the HAART outcome in HIV patients and its correlation with CD4 count.
Methods This prospective longitudinal study enrolled 134 HIV-infected patients admitted to or attending the OPD in the Department of Medicine or Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Center (Center of Excellence), Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Imphal, Manipur, from 2018 to 2020. Complete hemogram, CD4 count, and other related-blood investigations were studied.
Results The mean age of the study population was 39.9 ± 11.04 years. Of the 134 patients, 75 (56%) were males and 59 (44%) were females. Twelve (9%) patients had a history of injecting drug use (IDU). TLE (tenofovir, lamivudine, efavirenz) regimen was started on 112 (83.6%) patients and the majority of them (69/134 [51.5%]) had a CD4 count of 200 to 499 cells/mm3, which increased significantly 6 months after HAART to 99 to 1,149 cells/mm3, with a mean of 445 ± 217 cells/mm3. There were significant improvements in hemoglobin (Hb) levels, total leukocyte count (TLC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC), and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) after HAART indicating a positive correlation with CD4 count (p < 0.05). Thrombocytopenia was observed higher after HAART when compared to baseline. There was a positive correlation between platelet count and CD4 count. However, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) had a negative correlation with CD4 count.
Conclusion The study inferred a strong positive correlation between CD4 and Hb levels, TLC, ANC, ALC, and platelet count after HAART with improvement in these values as CD4 count increases. Specific treatment intervention based on the changes in the immunohematological profile trends can help prevent most of the adverse effects on HIV patients in our community.
03 June 2021 (online)
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