CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · International Journal of Recent Surgical and Medical Sciences
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1730242
Original Article

A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study of the Utility of Cartridge-Based Nucleic Acid Amplification Test in Diagnosis of Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in People Living with HIV in Second Highest HIV Prevalent State in India

Tade Bagbi
1  Department of Internal Medicine, District Hospital, Daporijo, Arunachal Pradesh, India
,
Ningthoukhongjam Reema
2  Department of Medicine, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Imphal, Manipur, India
,
S. Bhagyabati Devi
2  Department of Medicine, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Imphal, Manipur, India
,
Thangjam Gautam Singh
3  Department of Radiodiagnosis, Shija Hospitals and Research Institute, Langol, Imphal, Manipur, India
,
Mohammad Jaleel
2  Department of Medicine, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Imphal, Manipur, India
,
Ravi Nishad
2  Department of Medicine, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Imphal, Manipur, India
› Author Affiliations

Abstract

Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) is difficult to diagnose due to fewer organisms in sputum and extrapulmonary samples. Sputum culture takes 4 to 8 weeks for growth of the mycobacteria. Delayed treatment for TB in PLHIV leads to increased mortality. This study evaluated cartridge-based nucleic acid amplification test (CBNAAT) as a diagnostic tool for diagnosis of pulmonary TB (PTB) and extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) in PLHIV in the second most HIV prevalent state in India and for comparing its efficacy between Ziehl–Neelsen (ZN) staining sputum smear–positive and sputum smear–negative TB.

Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in RIMS, Imphal, with 167 PLHIV patients, age 15 years or older, having signs and symptoms of TB. Appropriate samples for sputum microscopy and CBNAAT were sent.

Conclusion The overall sensitivity of sputum smear for acid-fast bacillus (AFB) was found to be 30.71% and that of CBNAAT was 38.57%. Sensitivity of CBNAAT for sputum smear–positive and sputum smear–negative TB was 100 and 11.3%, respectively. Sensitivity of ZN smear for AFB of EPTB sample was 48.1% and that of CBNAAT was 59.25%. In both PTB and EPTB, CBNAAT showed an increase in diagnosis of microbiologically confirmed PTB cases by 7.8 and 11.1%, respectively, over and above the cases diagnosed by ZN smear microscopy. Rifampicin resistance was detected in five patients. We conclude that CBNAAT is a rapid test with better sensitivity in diagnosis of PTB and EPTB in PLHIV, compared with ZN smear microscopy. It detects rifampicin resistance for multidrug-resistant TB and helps in early treatment intervention.



Publication History

Publication Date:
07 June 2021 (online)

© 2021. Medical and Surgical Update Society. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial-License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
A-12, 2nd Floor, Sector 2, Noida-201301 UP, India