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Peripheral and Central Smell Regions in Migraine Patients using Maraş Powder (Smokeless Tobacco): A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation
Objective In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of Maraş powder (smokeless tobacco) use on smell regions in migraine patients.
Methods The cranial magnetic resonance imaging images of 58 adult patients were included in this retrospective study. Thirty-eight of them were migraine patients (18 of them using Maraş powder and 20 of them not using Maraş powder) and 20 of them were healthy controls. Bilateral peripheral (olfactory bulb [OB] volume and olfactory sulcus depth) and central smell regions (insular gyrus area and corpus amygdala area) as well as nasal septal deviation were evaluated.
Results In migraine patients (using or not using Maraş powder), OB volumes, and in Maraş powder using migraine patients, corpus amygdala areas were lower than those in the control group (p < 0.05). In Maraş powder-using migraine patients, left insular gyrus areas of the females were significantly lower than the males (p < 0.05).
Conclusion We concluded that the peripheral smell region of the OB volume decreased in migraine patients (using or not using Maraş powder). However, the central smell region of corpus amygdala area decreased in Maraş powder using migraine patients. Maraş powder usage may increase vascular shrinkage, and the decrease in OB volume and corpus amygdala area becomes prominent. It can be said that Maraş powder usage may cause a size decrease in the peripheral and central smell regions in migraine patients. Therefore, migraine patients and non-migrainous people should be noticed for the harmful effects of Maraş powder on the vascular system and smell system in the aspects of OB volume and corpus amygdala area decrease.
Keywordsmigraine - olfactory bulb (OB) volume - olfactory sulcus depth - insular gyrus area - corpus amygdala area - Maraş powder - smell
Adil Doğan contributed to the planning, designing, data collection, and literature survey. Nuray Bayar Muluk contributed to the planning, designing, literature survey, statistical analysis, and writing. Yılmaz Inanç contributed to the planning, designing, data collection, and literature survey.
No financial disclosures were made by the authors. This study is retrospective. Ethics committee approval was obtained from the Clinical Researches Ethics Committee of Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Faculty of Medicine (October 10, 2018, Number: 12). There was no need to take informed consent because the data were evaluated retrospectively. There are no funds for this article.
Received: 17 August 2020
Accepted: 09 March 2021
17 May 2021 (online)
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