Semin intervent Radiol 2021; 38(02): 226-232
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1729744
Review Article

Management of Patients when Superficial Venous Disease Arises from Pelvic Escape Points

Rakesh S. Ahuja
1  Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Tushar Garg
2  Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Deepak Sudheendra
3  Department of Clinical Radiology and Surgery, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania - Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
› Author Affiliations
Funding No financial and material support was taken.


Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a common condition in women that carries with it significant morbidity. It is commonly seen in patients presenting to obstetrics and gynecology outpatient clinic visits. CPP is a presenting symptom of various pathologies including pelvic varicocele, pelvic adhesions, spastic colon syndrome, uterine fibroids, endometriosis, and psychosomatic disorders. Pelvic congestion syndrome has more recently been termed “pelvic venous insufficiency (PVI)” due to the underlying retrograde flow through incompetent ovarian and pelvic veins that are thought to cause the symptoms of CPP. Pelvic varices can commonly present alongside vulvar, perineal, and lower extremity varices. There are some predictable “escape pathways” for these varices that may present for interventional treatment. This article introduces the reader to current terminology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with pelvic varices due to PVI.

Ethical Approval

IRB approval was not needed.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was not required for this study.

Consent for Publication

Consent for publication was not required for this study.

No content of the study has been presented or published previously.

Publication History

Publication Date:
03 June 2021 (online)

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