Homeopathy 2021; 110(04): 244-255
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1729562
Original Research Article

Bioresilience to Mercury Chloride of the Brine Shrimp Artemia Salina after Treatment with Homeopathic Mercurius Corrosivus

Andreia Adelaide G. Pinto
1   Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil
Mirian Y. de Oliveira Nagai
1   Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil
Ednar Nascimento Coimbra
1   Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil
Suham Nowrooz Mohammad
2   IPEN—Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research, São Paulo, Brazil, São Paulo, Brazil
Jefferson Souza Silva
1   Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil
Adalberto Von Ancken
1   Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil
Sandra Augusta G. Pinto
1   Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil
Michelle Sanchez Aguiar
1   Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil
Maristela Dutra-Correa
1   Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil
Marcos Antonio Hortellani
2   IPEN—Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research, São Paulo, Brazil, São Paulo, Brazil
Adriana Miranda
2   IPEN—Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research, São Paulo, Brazil, São Paulo, Brazil
Jorge Eduardo de Souza Sarkis
2   IPEN—Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research, São Paulo, Brazil, São Paulo, Brazil
Ivana Barbosa Suffredini
1   Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil
Giovani Bravin Peres
1   Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil
Maria Martha Bernardi
1   Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil
Steven John Cartwright
3   DiagnOx Laboratory, Cherwell Innovation Centre, Upper Heyford, Oxon, United Kingdom
Leoni Villano Bonamin
1   Graduation Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil
› Author Affiliations


Introduction Finding solutions to mitigate the impact of pollution on living systems is a matter of great interest. Homeopathic preparations of toxic substances have been described in the literature as attenuation factors for intoxication. Herein, an experimental study using Artemia salina and mercury chloride was developed as a model to identify aspects related to bioresilience.

Aims The aim of the study was to describe the effects of homeopathic Mercurius corrosivus (MC) on Artemia salina cysts hatching and on mercury bioavailability.

MethodsArtemia salina cysts were exposed to 5.0 µg/mL of mercury chloride during the hatching phase. MC potencies (6cH, 30cH, and 200cH) were prepared in sterile purified water and poured into artificial sea water. Different controls were used (non-challenged cysts and challenged cysts treated with water, succussed water, and Ethilicum 1cH). Four series of nine experiments were performed to evaluate the percentage of cyst hatching. Soluble total mercury (THg) levels and precipitated mercury content were also evaluated. Solvatochromic dyes were used to check for eventual physicochemical markers of MC biological activity.

Results Significant delay (p < 0.0001) in cyst hatching was observed only after treatment with MC 30cH, compared with controls. This result was associated with an increase of THg concentration in water (p = 0.0018) and of chlorine/oxygen ratio (p < 0.0001) in suspended micraggregates, suggesting changes in mercury bioavailability. A specific interaction of MC 30cH with the solvatochromic dye ET33 (p = 0.0017) was found.

Conclusion Changes in hatching rate and possible changes in Hg bioavailability are postulated as protective effects of MC 30cH on Artemia salina, by improving its natural bioresilience processes.


Mercurius corrosivus (MC) was investigated as a putative bioremediatory agent.

• Cysts of Artemia salina exposed to low concentrations of HgCl2 were used as experimental model.

• The dilution MC 30cH potentiated the delay of cysts hatching, an adaptative process.

• It changed the balance of soluble THg, chlorine and oxygen contents in water.

• It seems to change medium polarity, as indicated by its interaction with solvatochromic dyes.

• MC 30cH is proposed as a potential tool for improving bioresilience to mercury.

Supplementary Material

Publication History

Received: 16 November 2020

Accepted: 27 January 2021

Article published online:
02 September 2021

© 2021. Faculty of Homeopathy. This article is published by Thieme.

Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany

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