CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Journal of Clinical Interventional Radiology ISVIR
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1728986
Review Article

Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformations: Imaging and Endovascular Management Strategies

1  Army Institute of Cardiothoracic sciences (AICTS), affiliated to Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, India
Harshith Kramadhari
2  KS Hegde Medical academy, Derlakatte, Mangalore, India
Jawahar Rathod
3  Government medical college and hospital, Nagpur, India
4  Ruby Hall Clinic, Pune, India
Uday Bhanu Kovilapu
5  Armed Forces Medical College, India
› Author Affiliations


The peripheral high-flow vascular malformation (HFVM) comprises arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and fistula (AVF), shows varied clinical presentation (ranging from subtle skin lesion to life-threatening congestive heart failure), and frequently poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Importance of assigning a specific diagnosis to the vascular malformation cannot be overstated, as the treatment strategy is based on the type of vascular anomaly. Although the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification system is the most commonly accepted system for classifying congenital vascular anomalies in clinical practice, the Cho–Do et al classification is of utmost help in guiding optimal mode of treatment in peripheral AVM. Although transarterial approach remains the most commonly employed route for peripheral AVM embolization, the role of transvenous and direct percutaneous approach is ever increasing and the final decision on the approach depends on angioarchitecture of the AVM. In this article, we review various commonly employed classification systems for congenital vascular anomalies, and describe clinical features, imaging and treatment strategies for peripheral arteriovenous malformation (PAVM).

Publication History

Publication Date:
18 May 2021 (online)

© 2021. Indian Society of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial-License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (

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