CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Revista Chilena de Ortopedia y Traumatología 2021; 62(01): 066-073
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1728735
Review Article | Artículo de Revisión

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Skiers: Current Concepts

Article in several languages: español | English
Roberto Negrín
1  Unidad de Medicina del Deporte, Clínica Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
2  Federación Chilena de Esquí, Santiago, Chile
3  Federación Internacional de Esquí, Oberhofen am Thunersee, Suiza
José Rubio
2  Federación Chilena de Esquí, Santiago, Chile
Vicente Sepúlveda
4  Clínica Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
José Cordero
4  Clínica Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
Rodrigo Sandoval
4  Clínica Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
› Author Affiliations


Skiing is an individual sport with an injury rate of 1.84 per 1,000 skier days among the general population. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are among the most common injuries in skiers, with a rate of 5 per 100 skiers per season at a competitive level, because of the great demand placed on the knees. Their treatment is a challenge for orthopedic surgeons. A review of the literature was carried out regarding injury mechanisms, treatment, prevention, rehabilitation, and the use of bracing in the return to sports. The classic injury mechanisms in amateur and competitive skiers are described. Most ACL injuries require surgical resolution, with reconstruction using autologous bone-patellar tendon-bone graft, except in older patients or those with open physis, who must receive an autologous semitendinosus-gracilis graft. Prevention and rehabilitation are based on improving strength and neuromuscular control of the dynamic knee stabilizers, implementing specific programs, evaluating the sport movements, and performing neuromuscular control tests. Suitable functional bracings are recommended in patients undergoing ACL reconstruction. ACL injuries in competitive-level skiers are common, and their management is specific and multidisciplinary. The choice of graft and rehabilitation type is critical to resume skiing. Level of evidence: V.

Publication History

Received: 10 July 2020

Accepted: 21 January 2021

Publication Date:
02 June 2021 (online)

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