CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Indian J Cardiovasc Dis Women WINCARS 2021; 06(01): 042-045
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1728220
Review Article

Prophylaxis of Rheumatic Fever/Rheumatic Heart Disease–Penicillin or Azithromycin, Who Wins?

Arati Lalchandani
1  Professor of Medicine, GSVM Medical College, Kanpur, India
,
Taruni Lalchandani
2  ENT Department, Vivekananda Polyclinic, Lucknow, India
,
Lubna Ahmad
3  Ophthalmology Department, GSVM Medical College, Kanpur, India
,
Devarth Lalchandani
4  ENT Department, GSVM Medical College, Kanpur, India
› Author Affiliations

Abstract

For eradication of rheumatic fever (RF)/rheumatic heart disease (RHD), we must have a simplified diagnosis, and a treatment which is painless, easily available and safe; prophylaxis must be painless, safe, easily available, readily administered, and comprising a weekly oral single dose.

Arati's regime for management of RF/RHD (ARMOR) consists of diagnosis and management of RF/RHD in today's context in a very easy and simplified way.

ARMOR criteria: Arthritis or arthralgia with typical features suggestive of RF, carditis or cardiac involvement, typical of RF or RHD, and echocardiographic evidence of rheumatic heart valve involvement should essentially be the criteria to diagnose RF and RHD with high specificity and sensitivity.

With regard to treatment of RF/RHD, we need a drug which is highly efficacious against Group A Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus (GABHS), which is the causative agent for primary prevention and treatment and secondary prophylaxis.

The best drug discovered, to date, for GABHS is azithromycin.

ARMOR for primary prevention, treatment and secondary prophylaxis of RF/RHD is as follows:

Azithromycin must be given in a dose of 500 mg 1 tablet daily for 5 days, followed by 1 tablet once a week for 1 year.

Penicillin for treatment and prophylaxis must be given up due to its lack of availability, side effects, risk of anaphylaxis, parenteral preparation, hazards of administration, need for sensitivity test each time, etc. and replaced by azithromycin.



Publication History

Publication Date:
13 April 2021 (online)

© 2021. Women in Cardiology and Related Sciences. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial-License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
A-12, 2nd Floor, Sector 2, Noida-201301 UP, India