CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Indian J Cardiovasc Dis Women WINCARS 2021; 06(01): 042-045
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1728220
Review Article

Prophylaxis of Rheumatic Fever/Rheumatic Heart Disease–Penicillin or Azithromycin, Who Wins?

Arati Lalchandani
1  Professor of Medicine, GSVM Medical College, Kanpur, India
Taruni Lalchandani
2  ENT Department, Vivekananda Polyclinic, Lucknow, India
Lubna Ahmad
3  Ophthalmology Department, GSVM Medical College, Kanpur, India
Devarth Lalchandani
4  ENT Department, GSVM Medical College, Kanpur, India
› Author Affiliations


For eradication of rheumatic fever (RF)/rheumatic heart disease (RHD), we must have a simplified diagnosis, and a treatment which is painless, easily available and safe; prophylaxis must be painless, safe, easily available, readily administered, and comprising a weekly oral single dose.

Arati's regime for management of RF/RHD (ARMOR) consists of diagnosis and management of RF/RHD in today's context in a very easy and simplified way.

ARMOR criteria: Arthritis or arthralgia with typical features suggestive of RF, carditis or cardiac involvement, typical of RF or RHD, and echocardiographic evidence of rheumatic heart valve involvement should essentially be the criteria to diagnose RF and RHD with high specificity and sensitivity.

With regard to treatment of RF/RHD, we need a drug which is highly efficacious against Group A Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus (GABHS), which is the causative agent for primary prevention and treatment and secondary prophylaxis.

The best drug discovered, to date, for GABHS is azithromycin.

ARMOR for primary prevention, treatment and secondary prophylaxis of RF/RHD is as follows:

Azithromycin must be given in a dose of 500 mg 1 tablet daily for 5 days, followed by 1 tablet once a week for 1 year.

Penicillin for treatment and prophylaxis must be given up due to its lack of availability, side effects, risk of anaphylaxis, parenteral preparation, hazards of administration, need for sensitivity test each time, etc. and replaced by azithromycin.

Publication History

Publication Date:
13 April 2021 (online)

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