Semin intervent Radiol 2021; 38(02): 182-188
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1727104
Review Article

Choosing the Most Appropriate Treatment Option for Pelvic Venous Disease: Stenting versus Embolization

Mari E. Tanaka
1  Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
Oleksandra Kutsenko
2  Department of Radiology, SUNY Upstate University Hospital, Syracuse, New York
Gloria Salazar
3  Division of Interventional Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
› Author Affiliations


Pelvic venous disease (PeVD) in women encompasses a wide variety of entities all resulting in pelvic pain and varices. Successful treatment with percutaneous interventions is dependent on identifying underlying factors contributing to the disease and addressing them with either embolization of incompetent veins or stenting for venous stenoses. There are a multitude of embolization methods with marked practice heterogeneity. Moreover, with the ongoing development of dedicated venous stents in the treatment of chronic venous disease, there are more opportunities to consider this modality for the treatment of PeVD, as many patients present with combined vein reflux and central venous stenosis. The necessity to address both and the order of interventions in these patients is still to be elucidated. Here, we describe when to choose stenting or embolization for PeVD, their limitations, and our practice and identify further areas of research in this field.

Publication History

Publication Date:
03 June 2021 (online)

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