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Morphological Analysis of Bone Deformities of the Distal Femur in Toy Poodles with Medial Patellar Luxation
Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone deformities of the distal femur of Toy Poodles with medial patellar luxation (MPL) using computed tomography.
Methods Computed tomography data from 37 stifles of Toy Poodles (16 normal, 10 grade 2 MPL and 11 grade 4 MPL) were analysed. For trochlear morphology, sulcus angle, medial or lateral trochlear inclination and trochlear angle were compared. For condylar morphology, distance between the apex of the medial or lateral trochlear ridge and the most caudal point of the medial or lateral femoral condyle (MC or LC), the length of the cranial/middle (anterior) part (MC(a) or LC(a')) and caudal (posterior) part (MC(p) or LC(p')) of distal femur and medial or lateral condyle width (MCW or LCW) were measured, and the ratios of medial-to-lateral condyles and anterior–posterior parts were compared.
Results Sulcus angle was significantly higher, and medial trochlear inclination was significantly lower in grade 4 MPL group than other groups. Lateral trochlear inclination was not significantly different among 3 groups. Trochlear angles at proximal trochlear groove were significantly lower in grade 4 MPL group than other groups. MC/LC, MC(a)/LC(a'), MC(a)/MC(p), and LC(a')/LC(p') were significantly lower in grade 4 MPL group than other groups; however, there were no significant differences in MC(p)/LC(p') and MCW/LCW among three groups.
Conclusion Hypoplasia of the cranial and middle rather than caudal compartment of the distal femur was the primary morphological abnormality in Toy Poodles with grade 4 MPL.
All authors conceptualized the study. They drafted, revised, approved the manuscript and are publically accountable for relevant content. S.Y., K.E., M.S., K.A., T.N. and K.H. designed the study; S.Y. and K.T. acquired the data; S.Y., K.E., K.T. and K.H. analyzed and interpreted the data.
Received: 27 June 2020
Accepted: 26 January 2021
12 May 2021 (online)
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