Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25(01): 068-081
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1726014
Review Article

Conventional Radiography and Ultrasound Imaging of Rheumatic Diseases Affecting the Pediatric Population

Grzegorz Pracoń
1  Department of Radiology, National Institute of Geriatrics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Warsaw, Poland
,
Maria Pilar Aparisi Gómez
2  Department of Radiology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand
3  Department of Radiology, Hospital Vithas Nueve de Octubre, Valencia, Spain
,
Paolo Simoni
4  “Reine Fabiola” Children's University Hospital, Paediatric Imaging Department, Bruxelles, Belgium
,
Piotr Gietka
5  Clinics of Pediatric Rheumatology, National Institute of Geriatrics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Warsaw, Poland
,
Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska
1  Department of Radiology, National Institute of Geriatrics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Warsaw, Poland
› Author Affiliations

Abstract

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most frequent rheumatic disease in the pediatric population, followed by systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile scleroderma syndromes, juvenile dermatomyositis, chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis, and juvenile vasculopathies. The imaging approach to inflammatory connective tissue diseases in childhood has not changed dramatically over the last decade, with radiographs still the leading method for bony pathology assessment, disease monitoring, and evaluation of growth disturbances. Ultrasonography is commonly used for early detection of alterations within the intra- and periarticular soft tissues, assessing their advancement and also disease monitoring. It offers several advantages in young patients including nonionizing radiation exposure, short examination time, and high resolution, allowing a detailed evaluation of the musculoskeletal system for the features of arthritis, tenosynovitis, enthesitis, bursitis, myositis, as well as pathologies of the skin, subdermis, vessels, and fasciae. In this pictorial essay we discuss radiographic and ultrasound inflammatory features of autoimmune pediatric inflammatory arthropathies: juvenile idiopathic arthritis, lupus erythematosus, juvenile scleroderma, juvenile dermatomyositis and polymyositis.



Publication History

Publication Date:
21 May 2021 (online)

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