Homeopathic Remedies in COVID-19: Prognostic Factor ResearchFunding Indian Government infrastructure was used. No special funding was provided as all the contributors are full-time staff employed by the Government of NCT of Delhi.
Background/Objective Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new disease; its clinical profile and natural history are evolving. Each well-recorded case in homeopathic practice is important for deciding the future course of action. This study aims at identifying clinically useful homeopathic remedies and their prescribing symptoms using the prognostic factor research model.
Methods This was an open-label, multi-centric, observational study performed from April 2020 to July 2020 at various public health care clinics. The data were collected prospectively from clinical practice at integrated COVID-19 care facilities in India. Good-quality cases were selected using a specific set of criteria. These cases were analyzed for elucidating prognostic factors by calculating the likelihood ratio (LR) of each frequently occurring symptom. The symptoms with high LR values (>1) were considered as prescribing indications of the specific remedy.
Results Out of 327 COVID-19 cases reported, 211 met the selection criteria for analysis. The most common complaints were fatigue, sore throat, dry cough, myalgia, fever, dry mouth and throat, increased thirst, headache, decreased appetite, anxiety, and altered taste. Twenty-seven remedies were prescribed and four of them—Arsenicum album, Bryonia alba, Gelsemium sempervirens, and Pulsatilla nigricans—were the most frequently used. A high LR was obtained for certain symptoms, which enabled differentiation between the remedies for a given patient.
Conclusion Homeopathic medicines were associated with improvement in symptoms of COVID-19 cases. Characteristic symptoms of four frequently indicated remedies have been identified using prognostic factor research, findings that can contribute to accurate homeopathic prescribing during future controlled research in COVID-19.
• Clinical data were collected from contemporary homeopathic practice in integrated COVID-19 care centers in India.
• Prescribing indications of the four most frequently used homeopathic medicines, i.e., Arsenicum album, Bryonia alba, Gelsemium sempervirens and Pulsatilla nigricans, were identified using prognostic factor research.
• The findings may improve the accuracy of future homeopathic prescribing of COVID-19 patients.
This study was conducted under the overall guidance of author R.K.M., who contributed toward planning, training of investigators, study design, and critical evaluation of data and manuscript, besides ensuring logistic support. Cases were treated and data sheets were completed by all co-authors. These authors also contributed toward critical review of the spreadsheet, data analysis, and subsequent review. Authors A.M., M.G., and B.S. helped in the development of study design, statistical analysis, manuscript writing, and data collection coordination. All authors are responsible for and agreed to the content of the manuscript.
Received: 30 October 2020
Accepted: 30 November 2020
30 April 2021 (online)
© 2021. Faculty of Homeopathy. This article is published by Thieme.
Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany
- 1 India confirms its first coronavirus case. Accessed August 1, 2020 at: https://www.cnbc.com/2020/01/30/india-confirms-first-case-of-the-coronavirus.html
- 2 Kaur H, Chalia DS, Manchanda RK. Homeopathy in public health in India. Homeopathy 2019; 108: 76-87
- 3 Manchanda RK, Kaur H. Medical pluralism in health care-experience from New Delhi. In: Robert Jütte, ed. Medical Pluralism: Past, Present, Future. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag; 2013: 189-194
- 4 Chakraborty P, Lamba C, Nayak D. et al. Effect of individualized homoeopathic treatment in influenza like illness: a multicenter, single blind, randomized, placebo controlled study. Indian J Res Homoeopathy 2013; 7: 22-30
- 5 Frei H. H1N1 influenza: a prospective outcome study with homeopathy and polarity analysis. Am J Hom Med 2014; 107: 114-122
- 6 Oberbaum M. Will we miss the opportunity again?. Homeopathy 2020; 109: 176-178
- 7 Basu N, Das BC, Tandon S. Interim management of COVID-19 by repurposed homeopathic medicines. Homeopathy 2020; 109: 182-183
- 8 Teut M, Walach H, Varanasi R. et al. Recommendations for designing, conducting and reporting observational studies in homeopathy. Homeopathy 2020; 109: 114-125
- 9 Miglani A, Rutten L, Manchanda RK. Generalisability of prognostic factor research: further analysis of data from the IIPCOS2 study. Homeopathy 2017; 106: 155-159
- 10 Rutten L. Prognostic factor research in homoeopathy. Indian J Res Homoeopathy 2016; 10: 59-65
- 11 Ministry of AYUSH. Notification to Be Published in the Extraordinary Gazette of India, No. L.11011/8/2020/AS. New Delhi: Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India; 2020
- 12 Priya R, Sujatha V. AYUSH for COVID-19: science or superstition?. Indian J Public Health 2020; 64: S105-S107
- 13 Guan W-J, Ni Z-Y, Hu Y. et al. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med 2020; 382: 1708-1720
- 14 Clinical Management protocol: COVID-19. Accessed August 1, 2020 at https://www.mohfw.gov.in/pdf/ClinicalManagementProtocolforCOVID19dated27062020.pdf
- 15 Ho CS, Chee CY, Ho RC. Mental health strategies to combat the psychological impact of COVID-19 beyond paranoia and panic. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2020; 49: 155-160
- 16 Miglani A. Effect of lockdown during COVID-19: an Indian perspective. Int J Sci Healthcare Res 2020; 5: 55-61
- 17 Reilly D, Mercer SW, Bikker AP, Harrison T. Outcome related to impact on daily living: preliminary validation of the ORIDL instrument. BMC Health Serv Res 2007; 7: 139
- 18 van Haselen RA. Homeopathic clinical case reports: development of a supplement (HOM-CASE) to the CARE clinical case reporting guideline. Complement Ther Med 2016; 25: 78-85
- 19 Revised discharge policy for COVID-19.pdf. Accessed August 1, 2020 at: http://health.delhigovt.nic.in/wps/wcm/connect/b6af6e004e9fefb89ce8bd5dc9149193/Order11620.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&lmod=-1471732290&CACHEID=b6af6e004e9fefb89ce8bd5dc9149193
- 20 Riley RD, Hayden JA, Steyerberg EW. et al; PROGRESS Group. Prognosis Research Strategy (PROGRESS) 2: prognostic factor research. PLoS Med 2013; 10: e1001380
- 21 Rutten L. Data collection: treat every variable as a treasure. Homeopathy 2015; 104: 190-196
- 22 To KLA, Fok YYY. Homeopathic clinical features of 18 patients in COVID-19 outbreaks in Hong Kong. Homeopathy 2020; 109: 146-162
- 23 Rossi EG. The experience of an Italian public homeopathy clinic during the COVID-19 epidemic, March–May 2020. Homeopathy 2020; 109: 167-168
- 24 Masiello DJ. The COVID-19 pandemic: a view from New York city. Homeopathy 2020; 109: 163-166
- 25 Waisse S, Oberbaum M, Frass M. The Hydra-headed coronaviruses: implications of COVID-19 for homeopathy. Homeopathy 2020; 109: 169-175
- 26 Shinde V. Homoeopathy in pandemic Spanish flu 1918. Indian J Res Homoeopathy 2020; 14: 152-159
- 27 Aparecida L, Nunes S. Contribution of homeopathy to the control of an outbreak of dengue in Macaé, Rio de Janeiro. Int J High Dilution Res 2008; 7: 186-192
- 28 Oberai P, Varanasi R, Padmanabhan M. et al. Effectiveness of homeopathic medicines as add-on to institutional management protocol for acute encephalitis syndrome in children: an open-label randomized placebo-controlled trial. Homeopathy 2018; 107: 161-171
- 29 Hoover TA. Homeopathic prophylaxis: fact or fiction. J Am Inst Homeopath 2001; 94: 168-175
- 30 Shalts E. Consistently proven effective. In: The American Institute of Homeopathy Handbook for Parents. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2005: 33-40
- 31 von Bönninghausen CM. ed. Brief instructions for non-physicians concerning the prophylaxis and treatment of Asiatic cholera. In: The Lesser Writings of C.M.F. von Boenninghausen. Rep ed.. New Delhi: Jain Publishers; 2005: 299-308
- 32 Shepherd D. Homoeopathy in epidemic diseases. Saffron Walden: C.W. Daniel Company Ltd.; 1996
- 33 Marino R. Homeopathy and collective health: the case of dengue epidemics. Int J High Dilution Res 2008; 7: 179-185
- 34 Chaudhary A, Khurana A. A review on the role of homoeopathy in epidemics with some reflections on COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2). Indian J Res Homoeopathy 2020; 14: 100-109
- 35 Dos Santos WG. Natural history of COVID-19 and current knowledge on treatment therapeutic options. Biomed Pharmacother 2020; 129: 110493