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Evaluation of Role of Arterialization of Venous Flaps in Abdomen in Rats
Introduction Reconstruction forms the primary tenet in plastic surgery. Venous flaps are a known option but the survival is limited. Arterialization of venous flap can enhance its survival. While various techniques of arterialization of venous flaps are described, there are very few studies comparing them.
Material and methods The current study was conducted among 34 rats weighing 160 to 200 grams. The rats were divided into four groups. Group I—islanded epigastric flap was raised with superficial caudal epigastric vessels as pedicle. Group II—arterialized flow through venous flap was raised with superficial caudal epigastric vein (SCEV) as afferent and lateral thoracic vein as drainage vein. Side-to-side anastomosis was done between femoral artery and vein, lateral to the origin of superficial caudal epigastric artery. Group III—after raising the flap, as in group II, femoral vein was ligated proximal to superficial caudal epigastric vessels. Group IV—an arterialized flow through venous flap was raised with superficial caudal epigastric vein as afferent and lateral thoracic vein as drainage vein. End-to-side anastomosis was done between femoral artery and superficial caudal epigastric vein. Animals that died before completion of the study were excluded. The color changes of flaps were noted. Flap survival was expressed as a percentage of the total flap surface area. The patency of anastomosis was seen on postoperative day 5.
Results There was no total flap failure. On statical analysis, the flap survival area on day 5 between Group I and Group IV was not significant (p value 0.431). The survival area in Group I (78.85 ± 10.54%) was comparable to Group IV (65.71 ± 20.70%). Group II and III had poor results as compared with Group I. In four rats, thrombosis of arteriovenous anastomosis was noted with flap survival area of 30 to 33%.
Conclusion It was noted that epigastric venous flaps with end-to-side anastomosis between femoral artery and superficial caudal epigastric vein (group IV) have survival area comparable to islanded flaps.
10 March 2021 (online)
© 2021. Association of Plastic Surgeons of India. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial-License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
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