Semin intervent Radiol 2021; 38(01): 045-052
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1724012
Review Article

Craniofacial Trauma and Vascular Injury

Megan M. Bernath
1  Medical Scientist Training Program, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana
Sunu Mathew
2  Department of Ophthalmology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana
Jerry Kovoor
3  Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana
› Author Affiliations


Cerebrovascular injury is a potentially devastating outcome following craniofacial trauma. Interventional radiologists play an important role in detecting, grading, and treating the different types of vascular injury. Computed tomography angiography plays a significant role in the detection of these injuries. Carotid-cavernous fistulas, extra-axial hematomas, pseudoaneurysms, and arterial lacerations are rare vessel injuries resulting from craniofacial trauma. If left untreated, these injuries can lead to vessel rupture and hemorrhage into surrounding areas. Acute management of these vessel injuries includes early identification with angiography and treatment with endovascular embolization. Endovascular therapy resolves vessel abnormalities and reduces the risk of vessel rupture and associated complications.

Publication History

Publication Date:
15 April 2021 (online)

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