Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25(01): 105-122
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1723963
Review Article

Pediatric Musculoskeletal Trauma: Upper Limb

Ricardo Restrepo
1  Department of Radiology, Nicklaus Children's Hospital, Miami, Florida
Luisa Fernanda Cervantes
1  Department of Radiology, Nicklaus Children's Hospital, Miami, Florida
David Zahrah
2  School of Arts and Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri
Scott Schoenleber
3  Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nicklaus Children's Hospital, Miami, Florida
Edward Y. Lee
4  Department of Radiology, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
› Author Affiliations


Pediatric upper extremity injuries, acute and chronic due to overuse, are commonly encountered in the clinical setting. However, interpretation of imaging studies is often challenging in pediatric patients because of changing postnatal skeletal development and the broad spectrum of pathology that can potentially occur. This article discusses normal skeletal development and the pathomechanics of skeletal injuries in pediatric patients. It also outlines a framework for imaging as it pertains to the pediatric upper extremity, with specific emphasis on acute and chronic injuries to the shoulder, elbow, forearm, and wrist.

Publication History

Publication Date:
21 May 2021 (online)

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