CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · J Lab Physicians 2021; 13(01): 084-090
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1723055
Review Article

HIV and the Pituitary Gland: Clinical and Biochemical Presentations

Joyce Youssef
1  Medical School, The University of Buckingham, Buckingham, United Kingdom
Rohan Sadera
1  Medical School, The University of Buckingham, Buckingham, United Kingdom
Dushyant Mital
2  Department of HIV and Blood Borne Viruses, Milton Keynes University Hospital, NHS Foundation Trust, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom
Mohamed H. Ahmed
3  Department of Medicine and HIV Metabolic Clinic, Milton Keynes University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Eaglestone, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom
› Author Affiliations
Funding None.


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can have profound impact on the function of the pituitary gland. We have performed an electronic literature search using the following database: PubMed, Medline, Scopus, and Google Scholar. These databases were searched using the keywords HIV, pituitary glands, cancer, pituitary apoplexy, and infertility. HIV can cause hypopituitarism and also can lead to diabetes insipidus. The impact can be slow and insidious, and diagnosis depends on high index of clinical suspicion. The effect on anterior pituitary gland can be associated with growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, premature menopause, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. HIV can cause pituitary apoplexy, and this should be treated as an endocrine emergency. Importantly, HIV can be associated with pituitary lymphoma and pituitary cancer. Therefore, joined management between HIV physicians, clinical biochemists and endocrinologists may help in establishing pituitary dysfunction.

Publication History

Publication Date:
19 May 2021 (online)

© 2021. The Indian Association of Laboratory Physicians. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial-License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (

Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
A-12, 2nd Floor, Sector 2, Noida-201301 UP, India