Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2021; 25(01): 003-021
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1723005
Review Article

Anatomical Considerations of Embryology and Development of the Musculoskeletal System: Basic Notions for Musculoskeletal Radiologists

Maria Pilar Aparisi Gómez
1  Department of Radiology, National Women's Ultrasound, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand
2  Department of Radiology, Hospital Vithas Nueve de Octubre, Valencia, Spain
,
Sheryl Watkin
1  Department of Radiology, National Women's Ultrasound, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand
,
David Perry
1  Department of Radiology, National Women's Ultrasound, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand
3  Department of Pediatric Radiology, Starship Children's Hospital, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand
,
Paolo Simoni
4  Diagnostic Imaging Department, Université Libre de Bruxelles, “Reine Fabiola” Children's University Hospital, Bruxelles, Belgium
,
Giovanni Trisolino
5  Pediatric Orthopedics and Traumatology, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy
,
Alberto Bazzocchi
6  Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy
› Author Affiliations

Abstract

The musculoskeletal (MSK) system begins to form in the third week of intrauterine development. Multiple genes are involved in the complex different processes to form the skeleton, muscles and joints. The embryonic period, from the third to the eighth week of development, is critical for normal development and therefore the time when most structural defects are induced. Many of these defects have a genetic origin, but environmental factors may also play a very important role. This review summarizes the embryology of the different components of the MSK system and their configuration as an organ-system, analyzes the clinical implications resulting from failures in the process of organogenesis, and describes the first approach to diagnosis of skeletal abnormalities using prenatal ultrasound.



Publication History

Publication Date:
21 May 2021 (online)

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