Clin Colon Rectal Surg 2021; 34(03): 194-200
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1722843
Review Article

Training on Minimally Invasive Colorectal Surgery during Surgical Residency: Integrating Surgical Education and Advanced Techniques

Martina Nebbia
1   Department of Surgery, Colon and Rectal Surgery Unit, IRCCS Humanitas Research Hospital, Rozzano, Milan, Italy
Paulo Gustavo Kotze
2   Colorectal Surgery Unit, IBD Outpatient Clinics, Health Sciences Postgraduate Program, Catholic University of Paraná (PUCPR), Curitiba, Brazil
Antonino Spinelli
3   Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, IRCCS Humanitas University, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Rozzano, Milan, Italy
› Author Affiliations


Surgery is an ever-evolving discipline and continually incorporates new technologies that have improved the ability of the operating room surgeon to perform. The next generation of minimally invasive surgery includes laparoscopic and robotic-assisted procedures. Graduating residents may be expected to have the skills to perform common colorectal procedures using these technologies, and residency programs are developing curriculums to teach these skills. Minimally invasive techniques are challenging and learning only by observation and practice alone is difficult. This requires dedicated training and mentoring.

New simulation methods have been conceived specifically for minimally invasive procedures, and these embrace a combination of virtual reality simulators and box trainers, with animal and human tissue, as well as synthetic materials. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of training in minimally invasive colorectal surgery with a focus on different types of simulators that build the basis to develop and include a multistep training approach in a structured training curriculum for minimally invasive colorectal procedures.

Publication History

Article published online:
29 March 2021

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