J Neurol Surg B Skull Base 2021; 82(01): 129-141
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1722699
Clinical Evaluation
Review Article

Orbital Surgical Guidelines—Clinical Evaluation

Howard R. Krauss
1  Eye, Ear & Skull Base Center, Pacific Neuroscience Institute, Santa Monica, California, United States
› Author Affiliations
Funding None.


Orbital disorders may present with change in form or function or may be discovered incidentally during clinical or imaging evaluations. A standardized orbital clinical examination, with appropriate ancillary tests, is helpful in narrowing the differential diagnosis and in the development of plans for management, with an eye toward minimizing the morbidity of the disease or its treatment. Evaluation and management may best be performed with a multidisciplinary team, which has become more common in skull base surgery.

Publication History

Publication Date:
03 March 2021 (online)

© 2021. Thieme. All rights reserved.

Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany