CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Indian Journal of Cardiovascular Disease in Women - WINCARS 2020; 5(04): 351-363
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1722385
Clinical Rounds

Additional Heart Sounds–Part 2 (Clicks, Opening Snap and More)

Lalita Nemani
1  Department of Cardiology, Nizam’s Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
,
Ramya Pechetty
2  Department of Cardiology, Apollo Hospitals, Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
› Author Affiliations

Abstract

Systolic clicks are high-pitched sharp sounds. They are classified as ejection and nonejection clicks. Ejections clicks commonly occur at the aortic and pulmonary valve, while nonejection clicks occur at the mitral and tricuspid valve.

Opening snap is an additional sound heard in the diastole. It is described as an early diastolic, high-pitched sound, which is associated with opening of the mitral and/or tricuspid valve.

Pericardial knock is a high-pitched early diastolic sound, which is characteristic of constrictive pericarditis.

The opening and closing of prosthetic valves produce sounds which may vary in intensity and timing according to the type and design of the valve, patient’s rhythm, and hemodynamic status.



Publication History

Publication Date:
23 December 2020 (online)

© 2020. Women in Cardiology and Related Sciences. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial-License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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