J Neurol Surg B Skull Base 2022; 83(03): 228-236
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1722283
Original Article

Merlin-Deficient Schwann Cells Are More Susceptible to Radiation Injury than Normal Schwann Cells In Vitro

Erin Cohen
1   Department of Otolaryngology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States
,
1   Department of Otolaryngology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States
,
Christine Mei
1   Department of Otolaryngology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States
,
Olena Bracho
1   Department of Otolaryngology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States
,
Brian Marples
2   Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States
,
Nagy Elsayyad
2   Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States
,
Stefania Goncalves
1   Department of Otolaryngology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States
,
Michael Ivan
3   Department of Neurological Surgery, Miami Project to Cure Paralysis, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States
,
Paula V. Monje
4   Department of Neurological Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
5   Stark Neuroscience Research Institute, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
,
Xue-Zhong Liu
1   Department of Otolaryngology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States
,
Cristina Fernandez-Valle
6   Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States
,
Fred Telischi
1   Department of Otolaryngology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States
,
Christine T. Dinh
1   Department of Otolaryngology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States
› Author Affiliations
Funding American Hearing Research Foundation Bernard & Lottie Drazin Memorial Grant to Dr. Erin Cohen and the North American Skull Base Society Research Grant to Drs. Telischi, Dinh, and Ivan. Normal SC cultures were prepared in the laboratory of Paula Monje, in part funded by the Craig H. Neilsen Foundation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health (grant 339576). The merlin-deficient Schwann cells were prepared in the laboratory of Cristina Fernandez-Valle, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders and in part funded by the NIH/NIDCD 1R01-DC010189-06.

Abstract

Objectives Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are intracranial tumors, which are caused by NF2 gene mutations that lead to loss of merlin protein. A treatment for VS is stereotactic radiosurgery, a form of radiation. To better understand the radiobiology of VS and radiation toxicity to adjacent structures, our main objectives were (1) investigate effects of single fraction (SF) radiation on viability, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis in normal Schwann cells (SCs) and merlin-deficient Schwann cells (MD-SCs) in vitro, and (2) analyze expression of double strand DNA breaks (γ-H2AX) and DNA repair protein Rad51 following irradiation.

Study Design This is a basic science study.

Setting This study is conducted in a research laboratory.

Participants Patients did not participate in this study.

Main Outcome Measures In irradiated normal SCs and MD-SCs (0–18 Gy), we measured (1) viability, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis using cell-based assays, and (2) percentage of cells with γ-H2AX and Rad51 on immunofluorescence.

Results A high percentage of irradiated MD-SCs expressed γ-H2AX, which may explain the dose-dependent losses in viability in rodent and human cell lines. In comparison, the viabilities of normal SCs were only compromised at higher doses of radiation (>12 Gy, human SCs), which may be related to less Rad51 repair. There were no further reductions in viability in human MD-SCs beyond 9 Gy, suggesting that <9 Gy may be insufficient to initiate maximal tumor control.

Conclusion The MD-SCs are more susceptible to radiation than normal SCs, in part through differential expression of γ-H2AX and Rad51. Understanding the radiobiology of MD-SCs and normal SCs is important for optimizing radiation protocols to maximize tumor control while limiting radiation toxicity in VS patients.



Publication History

Received: 19 June 2020

Accepted: 29 October 2020

Article published online:
19 January 2021

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