CC BY 4.0 · Journal of Child Science 2021; 11(01): e1-e13
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1722218
Original Article

Factors Affecting Compliance to a Gluten-Free Diet in Pediatric Populations with Celiac Disease

Vítor Macedo-Campos§
1  School of Medicine, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal
2  Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Unit, Pediatric Department and Clinical Academic Center, Hospital de Braga, Braga, Portugal
3  Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal
4  ICVS/3B's—PT Government Associate Laboratory, Braga-Guimarães, Portugal
,
Rui Macedo-Campos§
1  School of Medicine, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal
2  Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Unit, Pediatric Department and Clinical Academic Center, Hospital de Braga, Braga, Portugal
3  Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal
4  ICVS/3B's—PT Government Associate Laboratory, Braga-Guimarães, Portugal
,
Filipa Pinto-Ribeiro
1  School of Medicine, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal
3  Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal
4  ICVS/3B's—PT Government Associate Laboratory, Braga-Guimarães, Portugal
,
Henedina Antunes
1  School of Medicine, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal
2  Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Unit, Pediatric Department and Clinical Academic Center, Hospital de Braga, Braga, Portugal
3  Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal
4  ICVS/3B's—PT Government Associate Laboratory, Braga-Guimarães, Portugal
› Author Affiliations
Funding This work was funded by the Portuguese Science Foundation Project PTDC/SAUNEU/108557/2008, COMPETE and FEDER.

Abstract

Celiac disease (CD) is a multisystemic autoimmune disorder triggered by gluten, and the only known remedy available for this malady is a gluten-free diet (GFD). Therefore, we performed a systematic review to correlate the influence of different factors in compliance to a GFD. We searched PubMed database, from inception to April 2019. As inclusion criteria we considered population under 18 years, confirmed diagnosis of CD without related comorbidities and the study objective being the factors affecting compliance to a GFD. The variables compared were age, parent's education level, parental knowledge about CD, family type, celiac association membership, quality of life, and perception of difficulties in maintaining a GFD. We identified 1,414 articles, 35 articles were eligible for full text assessment and 12 were included in the study since they studied similar variables. Our work has found some limitations namely a variety of methods to assess GFD compliance, a limiting definition of compliance, a parental bias in data, an absence of standardization in age categories, and a majority of studies being observational in their nature. Age as well as parental knowledge of CD and family type are key factors in pediatric GFD compliance. Nevertheless environmental, social, and family factors were also related with compliance. Further studies are needed to fully disclose the causality relation between these factors and compliance.

Authors' Contributions

V.M.-C. and R.M.-C. conceptualized the work, collected, analyzed, and interpreted, drew and reviewed the first draft and ensured for the integrity and accuracy in the work. H.A. conceptualized the work, reviewed the first draft, and ensured for the integrity and accuracy in the work. F.P.-R. reviewed the first draft and ensured for the integrity and accuracy in the work. All the authors approved the final manuscript as submitted and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work.


§ These authors contributed equally to this work.




Publication History

Received: 19 September 2020

Accepted: 18 November 2020

Publication Date:
14 January 2021 (online)

© 2021. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, permitting unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction so long as the original work is properly cited. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

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