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Bacteremia Due to Kosakonia cowanii in a Preterm Neonate
Low-birthweight infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units are at high risk of hospital-acquired infections by opportunistic pathogens. The gut microbiota of preterm neonates lacks commensal bacteria providing a barrier against pathogens. We report a case of bacteremia due to Kosakonia cowanii in a preterm neonate.
A female baby of 680 g was delivered through a cesarean-section at 28 weeks of gestation due to intrauterine growth retardation and fetal rhythm abnormalities. On day 27, two blood cultures grew gram-negative bacilli in a context of functional ileus. No reliable identification could be obtained using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight, biochemical reactions with the VITEK 2 GN ID card, or 16S rDNA sequencing. K. cowanii was finally identified by gyrB sequencing. The source of infection may have been either the central venous catheter or translocation from the gut microbiota. Evolution was favorable after 14 days of cefepime (combined with amikacin for 5 days) and central venous catheter removal.
K. cowanii is a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family that was recently reclassified from the Enterobacter genus. Human infections due to K. cowanii are scarce and have mainly been associated with traumatic inoculation from plants or transient gut colonization. K. cowanii may be an underestimated opportunistic pathogen in susceptible populations such as preterm neonates.
Received: 12 August 2020
Accepted: 28 October 2020
21 December 2020 (online)
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