Thromb Haemost 2021; 121(06): 703-715
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1721388
Review Article

Cardiometabolic Syndrome: An Update on Available Mouse Models

Dimitra Aravani
1  Department of Physiology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
,
Eva Kassi
2  Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
,
Antonios Chatzigeorgiou*
1  Department of Physiology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
3  Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus of TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany
,
Styliani Vakrou*
1  Department of Physiology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
4  Department of Cardiology, “Laiko” General Hospital, Athens, Greece
› Author Affiliations
Funding This work was funded by a grant from the European Foundation for the Study of Diabetes (EFSD) to A.C.

Abstract

Cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS), a disease entity characterized by abdominal obesity, insulin resistance (IR), hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, is a global epidemic with approximately 25% prevalence in adults globally. CMS is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and development of diabetes. Due to its multifactorial etiology, the development of several animal models to simulate CMS has contributed significantly to the elucidation of the disease pathophysiology and the design of therapies. In this review we aimed to present the most common mouse models used in the research of CMS. We found that CMS can be induced either by genetic manipulation, leading to dyslipidemia, lipodystrophy, obesity and IR, or obesity and hypertension, or by administration of specific diets and drugs. In the last decade, the ob/ob and db/db mice were the most common obesity and IR models, whereas Ldlr−/− and Apoe−/− were widely used to induce hyperlipidemia. These mice have been used either as a single transgenic or combined with a different background with or without diet treatment. High-fat diet with modifications is the preferred protocol, generally leading to increased body weight, hyperlipidemia, and IR. A plethora of genetically engineered mouse models, diets, drugs, or synthetic compounds that are available have advanced the understanding of CMS. However, each researcher should carefully select the most appropriate model and validate its consistency. It is important to consider the differences between strains of the same animal species, different animals, and most importantly differences to human when translating results.

* These authors contributed equally to this work as senior authors.




Publication History

Received: 03 June 2020

Accepted: 24 October 2020

Publication Date:
06 December 2020 (online)

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