Does Intraoperative Diuretic Therapy Affect the Thoracic Fluid Content and Clinical Outcome in Patients Undergoing Mitral Valve Surgery?
Pulmonary congestion is inevitable in valvular heart disease. The condition worsens when a patient undergoes cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Thoracic fluid content (TFC) is an indicator of total volume status of lung in health and disease. We hypothesize that intraoperative diuretic therapy can improve the hemodynamic and clinical outcome in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery by decreasing TFC as measured by impedance cardiography (ICG).
Sixty adult patients with critical mitral stenosis scheduled for mitral valve surgery divided into diuretic (Gr D, n = 30) and control (Gr C, n = 30) group. One mg/kg of furosemide was administered before CPB to Gr D and similar volume of normal saline to Gr C. Hemodynamic and TFC measurements were done by index of contractility (ICON), NICOM monitor at baseline, before anesthesia induction (T1), post skin closure (T2), postoperatively at 6th hour (T3), 24th hour (T4), and 48th hour (T5). The duration of mechanical ventilation (hour), intensive care unit stay (day) and inotropic score was significantly higher in Gr C (5.29 ± 1.4 vs. 2.15 ± 1.1; p = 0.001; 2.11 ± 0.64 vs. 1.67 ± 0.57, p = 0.002; 9 ± 5.4 vs. 5.8 ± 3.2, p = 0.05), respectively. Three patients in Gr C developed respiratory complication during their course of hospital stay. The baseline TFC value was comparable (p = 0.08). In Gr C. it gradually increased over time and never reached the baseline value, whereas in Gr D, there was slight increase in TFC till 6th postoperative hour and it came below the baseline value at 48th hour. A significantly higher TFC value in Gr C in comparison with Gr D from 6th to 48th postoperative hour (p = 0.005, 0.000, and 0.005, respectively) was observed.
The ICON had a gradual improvement from 12th over 48th postoperative hour in Gr D in comparison to Gr C. The systemic vascular resistance index was decreased over time in Gr C, whereas in Gr D there was a mild fall at the end of surgery and it came back to near the baseline value at 48th postoperative hour. A continuous decrease in DO2 I except at 6th postoperative hour was seen in Gr C, whereas it remained near the baseline value in Gr D.
Linear regression analysis showed significant direct correlation of TFC with intraoperative fluid balance (r = 0.524, p = 0.001), cumulative fluid balance (r = 0.680, p = 0.000) and both peak and mean airway pressure (r = 0.436, p = 0.001 and r = 0.548, p = 0.001, respectively).
We concluded that TFC is clearly influenced by intraoperative diuretic therapy. A decrease in TFC has an association with better hemodynamic parameters that could find interesting clinical applications in the decision, whether or not to include a diuretic as a routine therapy during intraoperative management in valve surgery patients.
06 November 2020 (online)
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