Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1719154
Original Cardiovascular

Impact of Modifiable Risk Factors on Long-Term Outcomes after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

1  Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Carmel Medical Center Cardiovascular Center, Haifa, Israel
,
Barak Zafrir
2  Department of Cardiology, Carmel Medical Center Cardiovascular Center, Haifa, Israel
,
Ronen Jaffe
2  Department of Cardiology, Carmel Medical Center Cardiovascular Center, Haifa, Israel
,
Walid Saliba
3  Department of Community Medicine and Epidemiology, Carmel Medical Center Cardiovascular Center, Haifa, Israel
,
Moshe Y. Flugelman
2  Department of Cardiology, Carmel Medical Center Cardiovascular Center, Haifa, Israel
,
Erez Sharoni
1  Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Carmel Medical Center Cardiovascular Center, Haifa, Israel
› Institutsangaben

Abstract

Background Risk factors control and secondary prevention measures are often reported to be suboptimal in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and may lead to worse clinical outcomes. We aimed to examine potentially modifiable risk factors in patients undergoing CABG and investigate their association with long-term coronary events.

Methods Cardiovascular risk factors were recorded preoperatively in the setting of a cardiac catheterization laboratory and were analyzed in relation to long-term coronary events, defined as acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or revascularization after CABG.

Results Study population included 1,125 patients undergoing CABG without previous revascularization. Modifiable risk factors included hypertension (71%), hyperlipidemia (67%), diabetes (42%), obesity (28%), and smoking (21%). Only 8% did not have any of the five risk factors. During the mean follow-up of 93 ± 52 months after CABG, 179 patients (16%) experienced a coronary event. Incidence rates were higher in patients with than without the presence of each of the modifiable risk factors, except obesity. Active smoking (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI]: (1.07–2.13); p = 0.020), presence of diabetes (HR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.18–2.18; p = 0.002), and hyperlipidemia (HR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.45–3.14; p < 0.001) were independent predictors of future coronary events after CABG; they also displayed a progressive stepwise increment in the risk of long-term coronary events when cumulatively present.

Conclusions In patients undergoing CABG, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and smoking, as documented preoperatively, were potentially modifiable risk factors that were independently and cumulatively associated with long-term risk of ACS or coronary revascularization, highlighting the importance of early identification and risk factors control for improving cardiovascular health after CABG.



Publikationsverlauf

Eingereicht: 24. August 2020

Angenommen: 21. September 2020

Publikationsdatum:
01. Dezember 2020 (online)

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