J Pediatr Genet 2022; 11(01): 034-041
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1718726
Original Article

Clinical and Laboratory Profile of Gangliosidosis from Southern Part of India

1   Department of Pediatric Neurology, Indira Gandhi Institute of Child Health, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
,
Priya Gupta
1   Department of Pediatric Neurology, Indira Gandhi Institute of Child Health, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
,
Narmadham K. Bharathi
2   Department of Pediatric Medicine, Indira Gandhi Institute of Child Health, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
,
Maya Bhat
3   Department of Neuroradiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
,
Sanjay K. Shivappa
2   Department of Pediatric Medicine, Indira Gandhi Institute of Child Health, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
,
Naveen Benakappa
2   Department of Pediatric Medicine, Indira Gandhi Institute of Child Health, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
› Author Affiliations

Abstract

Gangliosidoses are progressive neurodegenerative disorders caused by the deficiency of enzymes involved in the breakdown of glycosphingolipids. There are not much data about gangliosidosis in India; hence, this study was planned. The aim is to study the clinical, biochemical, and molecular profile of gangliosidosis. A retrospective chart review, in the pediatric neurology department from January 2015 to March 2020, was performed. Children diagnosed with Gangliosidosis were included. The disorder was confirmed by reduced activity of enzymes and/or pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in associated genes. We assessed age at presentation, gender, parental consanguinity, clinical manifestations, neuroimaging findings, enzyme level, and pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants. Clinical data for 32 children with gangliosidosis were analyzed, which included 12 (37.5%) with GM1 gangliosidosis, 8 (25%) with Tay-Sachs disease (TSD), 11 (34.37%) with Sandhoff disease (SD), and 1 AB variant of GM2 gangliosidosis that occurs due to GM2 ganglioside activator protein deficiency. Twenty-four (75%) children were the offspring of consanguineous parents. Thirty-one (97%) had developmental delay. The median age at presentation was 15.5 months. Nine (28.12%) had seizures. Five children (41.6%) with GM1 gangliosidosis and two with SD had extensive Mongolian spots. Ten children with GM1 gangliosidosis (83.3%) had coarse facial features. Cherry red spot was found in 24 out of 32 children (75%). All children with GM1 gangliosidosis and none with TSD had hepato-splenomegaly. Two children (2/8; 25%) with TSD and seven (7/11; 63%) with SD had microcephaly. One child with SD had coarse facies and three did not have hepato-splenomegaly. Neuroimaging findings revealed bilateral thalamic involvement in 20 (62.5%) patients and periventricular hypomyelination in all cases. One child had a rare AB variant of GM2 gangliosidosis. GM2 Gangliosidoses are more common compared with GM1 variety. All of them had infantile onset except one child with TSD. Microcephaly can be present while usually megalencephaly is reported in the literature. The absence of hepato-splenomegaly does not rule out SD. Extensive Mongolian spots can be seen in GM2 gangliosidosis. AB variant of GM2 gangliosidosis should be considered when the enzyme is normal in the presence of strong clinical suspicion.

Authors' Contributions

V.K.G. dedicated to supervision, guidance, and review of the manuscript. P.G. and N.B. involved in the management of the children and the preparation of the manuscript. M.B. supported in the diagnosis and the preparation of the manuscript. S.K.S. and N.B. provided valuable inputs in the management of children.




Publication History

Received: 28 June 2020

Accepted: 13 September 2020

Article published online:
19 October 2020

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