Clin Colon Rectal Surg 2021; 34(03): 136-143
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1718687
Review Article

Role of Simulation-Based Training in Minimally Invasive and Robotic Colorectal Surgery

Sergio Eduardo Alonso Araujo
1   Colorectal Surgery Division, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil
Rodrigo Oliva Perez
2   Colorectal Surgery Division, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil
Sidney Klajner
1   Colorectal Surgery Division, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil
› Author Affiliations


Properly performing minimally invasive colorectal procedures requires specific skills. With a focus on patient safety, the training of surgeons on patients is only accepted under exceptionally controlled, expensive, and challenging conditions. Moreover, many new techniques in colorectal surgery have been developed. Therefore, undertaking minimally invasive colorectal surgery in modern times requires specific psychomotor skills that trainee surgeons must gather in less time. In addition, there are not enough proctors with sufficient expertise for such an expressive number of new different techniques likes transanal and robotic procedures.

Studies that have demonstrated an improvement in minimally invasive surgery skills to the actual operating room in general surgery and a stepwise approach to surgical simulation with a combination of various training methods appears to be useful in colorectal surgery training programs. However, the scientific evidence on the transfer of skills specifically for colorectal surgery is extremely scarce and very variable. Thus, the evaluation of the results remains quite difficult. In this review, we present the best available evidence on the types of training based on simulation, their characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, and finally the results available on their adoption. Nevertheless, scientific evidence about the benefit of simulation training in minimally invasive colorectal surgery is limited and there is a need to build more robust evidence.

Publication History

Article published online:
29 March 2021

© 2021. Thieme. All rights reserved.

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