CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Journal of Cardiac Critical Care TSS 2020; 4(02): 104-110
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1718503
Review Article

Women’s Cardiac Health in 2020: A Systematic Review

Fabiola B. Sozzi
1  Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Internal Medicine Department, Respiratory Unit, Cystic Fibrosis Adult Center, and Cardiovascular Unit, Milan, Italy
,
Marta Belmonte
1  Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Internal Medicine Department, Respiratory Unit, Cystic Fibrosis Adult Center, and Cardiovascular Unit, Milan, Italy
,
Marco Schiavone
1  Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Internal Medicine Department, Respiratory Unit, Cystic Fibrosis Adult Center, and Cardiovascular Unit, Milan, Italy
,
Ciro Canetta
2  Internal Medicine Unit, Crema Hospital, Lombardy, Italy
,
Rakesh Gupta
3  JROP Institute of Echocardiography, Delhi, India
,
Francesco Blasi
1  Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Internal Medicine Department, Respiratory Unit, Cystic Fibrosis Adult Center, and Cardiovascular Unit, Milan, Italy
› Author Affiliations

Abstract

Although substantial progress has been made toward improving gender- and sex-specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) management and outcomes, contemporary reports indicate a persistent knowledge gap with regard to optimal risk-stratification and management in female cardiac heart disease (CHD) patients. Prominent patient and system delays in diagnosing CHD are, in part, due to the limited awareness for the latent CVD risk in women, a lack of sex-specific thresholds within clinical guidelines, and subsequent limited performance of contemporary diagnostic approaches in women. Several traditional risk factors for CHD affect both women and men. But other factors can play a bigger role in the development of heart disease in women. In addition, little is known about the influence of socioenvironmental and contextual factors on gender-specific disease manifestation and outcomes. It is imperative that we understand the mechanisms that contribute to worsening risk factors profiles in young women to reduce future atherosclerotic CVD morbidity and mortality. This comprehensive review focuses on the novel aspects of cardiovascular health in women and sex differences as they relate to clinical practice and prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of CVD. Increased recognition of the prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and their differential impact in women, as well as emerging nontraditional risk factors unique to or more common in women, contribute to new understanding mechanisms, leading to worsening outcome for women.



Publication History

Publication Date:
27 October 2020 (online)

© 2020. Official Publication of The Simulation Society (TSS), accredited by International Society of Cardiovascular Ultrasound ISCU. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial-License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.)

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