Self-Reported Effectiveness of e-Learning Classes during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Nation-Wide Survey of Pakistani Undergraduate Dentistry Students
Objectives The main aim of this study was to determine the undergraduate dental students’ self-reported effectiveness of online classes offered by various dental institutes of Pakistan.
Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online survey. A pretested and validated questionnaire comprising of 31 questions was circulated among dental students. The study participants were inquired about the perceived level of accessibility of resources and the effectiveness of online teaching. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 24. Mann–Whitney U test and Kruskal–Wallis test were used for statistical analysis at p ≤0.05.
Results A total of 1,207 students from all over Pakistan responded. The majority of students was dissatisfied with the institutional learning management system and quality of learning resources available. Students were also dissatisfied with the level of training of teachers for online lectures. The worst rating was reported for questions related to the effectiveness of online classes (average rating: 3.83 and 3.781/5). First-year students reported poor interaction with teachers (p < 0.001) and strongly disagreed with the effectiveness of online classes (mean rating: 4.14 ± 0.935).
Conclusions The results from the present survey showed that dental students of Pakistan unanimously voiced dissatisfaction toward various elements of online teaching sessions. Findings from this survey will aid the academic institutes to establish proficient learning platforms focused on improving students` learning experience.
01 October 2020 (online)
© 2020. European Journal of Dentistry. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial-License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Private Ltd.
A-12, Second Floor, Sector -2, NOIDA -201301, India
- 1 Mukhtar K, Javed K, Arooj M, Sethi A. Advantages, limitations and recommendations for online learning during COVID-19 pandemic era. Pak J Med Sci 2020; 36 (COVID19-S4) S27-S31
- 2 Muljana PS, Luo T. Factors contributing to student retention in online learning and recommended strategies for improvement: a systematic literature review. J Inf Technol Educ 2019; 18: 19-57
- 3 Al-Saleh SA, Al-Madi EM, Al-Angari NS, Al-Shehri HA, Shukri MM. Survey of perceived stress-inducing problems among dental students, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Dent J 2010; 22 (02) 83-88
- 4 Linjawi AI, Alfadda LS. Students’ perception, attitudes, and readiness toward online learning in dental education in Saudi Arabia: a cohort study. Adv Med Educ Pract 2018; 9: 855-863
- 5 Schönwetter DJ, Reynolds PA, Eaton KA, De Vries J. Online learning in dentistry: an overview of the future direction for dental education. J Oral Rehabil 2010; 37 (12) 927-940
- 6 Alghamdi SR, Bayaga A. Use and attitude towards Learning Management Systems (LMS) in Saudi Arabian universities. Eurasia J Math Sci Technol Educ 2016; 12 (09) 2309-2330
- 7 Alenezi A. Barriers to participation in learning management systems in Saudi Arabian universities. Educ Res Int 2018; 2018 DOI: 10.1155/2018/9085914.
- 8 Hamutoglu NB, Gemikonakli O, Duman I, Kirksekiz A, Kiyici M. Evaluating students experiences using a virtual learning environment: satisfaction and preferences. Educ Technol Res Dev 2020; 68 (01) 437-462
- 9 Pahinis K, Stokes CW, Walsh TF, Tsitrou E, Cannavina G. A blended learning course taught to different groups of learners in a dental school: follow-up evaluation. J Dent Educ 2008; 72 (09) 1048-1057
- 10 Al H Raisi, Dummer PMH, Vianna ME. How is Endodontics taught? A survey to evaluate undergraduate endodontic teaching in dental schools within the United Kingdom. Int Endod J 2019; 52 (07) 1077-1085
- 11 Iyer P, Aziz K, Ojcius DM. Impact of COVID-19 on dental education in the United States. J Dent Educ 2020; 84 (06) 718-722
- 12 Stormon N, Ford PJ, Eley DS. DREEM-ing of dentistry: students’ perception of the academic learning environment in Australia. Eur J Dent Educ 2019; 23 (01) 35-41
- 13 Asiry MA. Dental students’ perceptions of an online learning. Saudi Dent J 2017; 29 (04) 167-170
- 14 Moazami F, Bahrampour E, Azar MR, Jahedi F, Moattari M. Comparing two methods of education (virtual versus traditional) on learning of Iranian dental students: a post-test only design study. BMC Med Educ 2014; 14 (01) 45 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-14-45.
- 15 Reynolds PA, Rice S, Uddin M. Online learning in dentistry: the changes in undergraduate perceptions and attitudes over a four year period. Br Dent J 2007; 203 (07) 419-423
- 16 Morton CE, Saleh SN, Smith SF. et al. Blended learning: how can we optimise undergraduate student engagement?. BMC Med Educ 2016; 16: 195 DOI: 10.1186/s12909-016-0716-z.
- 17 Memon AR, Rathore FA. Moodle and Online Learning in Pakistani Medical Universities: an opportunity worth exploring in higher education and research. J Pak Med Assoc 2018; 68 (07) 1076-1078
- 18 Baig QA, Abbas Zaidi SJ, Alam BF. Perceptions of dental faculty and students of E-learning and its application in a public sector Dental College in Karachi, Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc 2019; 69 (09) 1320-1325
- 19 Ahmed MA, Jouhar R, Ahmed N. et al. Fear and practice modifications among dentists to combat novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020; 17 (08) 2821 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17082821.
- 20 Wu DT, Wu KY, Nguyen TT, Tran SD. The impact of COVID-19 on dental education in North America-where do we go next?. Eur J Dent Educ 2020; 24 (04) 825-827 DOI: 10.1111/eje.12561.
- 21 Dhawan S. Online learning: a panacea in the time of COVID-19 crisis. J Educ Technol Syst 2020; 49 (01) 5-22
- 22 HEC COVID-19 Policy Papers Policy Guidance Note 5: Online Readiness. https://www.hec.gov.pk/english/HECAnnouncements/Documents/nCoVirus/Covid-19-Policy-Guidance-No.5-Online%20Readiness.pdf. Accessed on June 2, 2020.
- 23 Ali A, Ramay MI, Shahzad M. Key factors for determining student satisfaction in distance learning courses: a study of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Islamabad, Pakistan. Turkish Online J Distance Educ 2011; 12 (02) 114-127
- 24 Khan SA, Khan AA, Bhatti R. Internet access, use and gratification among university students: a case study of the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Chin Librariansh Int Electron J 2011; 1; 32: 1-4
- 25 Qamar K, Khan NS, Bashir Kiani MR. Factors associated with stress among medical students. J Pak Med Assoc 2015; 65 (07) 753-755
- 26 Suner A, Yilmaz Y, Pişkin B. Mobile learning in dentistry: usage habits, attitudes and perceptions of undergraduate students. PeerJ 2019; 7: e7391 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.7391.
- 27 Hamilton LA, Franks A, Heidel RE, McDonough SLK, Suda KJ. Assessing the Value of Online Learning and Social Media in Pharmacy Education. Am J Pharm Educ 2016; 80 (06) 97 DOI: 10.5688/ajpe80697.
- 28 Abbasi S, Ayoob T, Malik A, Memon SI. Perceptions of students regarding E-learning during Covid-19 at a private medical college. Pak J Med Sci 2020; 36 (COVID19-S4) S57-S61 DOI: 10.12669/pjms.36.covid19-s4.2766.
- 29 Bansal S, Sahadevan DC, Mahesh S, Aneja PS, Aneja M. Smartphones-help or hindrance in advancing medical/dental education. Orig Res Artic J Evol Med Dent Sci 2020; 9 (01) 10-13
- 30 Rung A, Warnke F, Mattheos N. Investigating the use of smartphones for learning purposes by Australian dental students. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2014; 2 (02) e20 DOI: 10.2196/mhealth.3120.
- 31 FitzPatrick T. Key Success Factors of eLearning in Education: A Professional Development Model to Evaluate and Support eLearning. US-China Education Review A 2012; 2 (09) 789-795 DOI: 10.17265/2161-623X/2012.09A.004.
- 32 Dias da Silva MA, Pereira AC, Walmsley AD. The availability of open-access videos offered by dental schools. Eur J Dent Educ 2019; 23 (04) 522-526
- 33 Crawford J, Butler-Henderson K, Rodolph J. et al. Journal of Applied Learning & Teaching COVID-19 : 20 countries ’ higher education intra-period digital pedagogy responses. J Appl Learn Teach 2020; 3 (01) 1-20
- 34 Tangade PS, Mathur A, Gupta R, Chaudhary S. Assessment of stress level among dental school students: an Indian outlook. Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2011; 8 (02) 95-101
- 35 Schönwetter D, Reynolds P. Discovering online learning barriers: survey of health educational stakeholders in dentistry. Eur J Dent Educ 2013; 17 (01) e126-e135