CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Journal of Cardiac Critical Care TSS
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1716634
Review Article

Coronavirus and Homo Sapiens

Pooja Natarajan
1  Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, Narayana Institute of Cardiac Sciences, Narayana Hrudayalaya, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
,
Muralidhar Kanchi
1  Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, Narayana Institute of Cardiac Sciences, Narayana Hrudayalaya, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
,
Vikneswaran Gunaseelan
2  Department of Research, Narayana Health City, Narayana Hrudayalaya Limited, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
,
Alben Sigamani
2  Department of Research, Narayana Health City, Narayana Hrudayalaya Limited, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
,
James Harmon
3  Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
,
Kumar Belani
4  Department of Anesthesiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
› Author Affiliations
  

Abstract

The Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918 globally claimed death between 50 and 100 million lives. In India, it was referred to as “The Bombay Fever,” and accounted for a fifth of the global death toll at that time. The current outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a new human-infecting beta coronavirus, has demonstrated that the size of an organism does not reflect on its ability to affect almost an entire human population. COVID-19, first detected in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, that spread rapidly worldwide. In humans, this disease ranged from flu-like symptoms to severe acute hypoxic respiratory failure. By appearance, this virus closely related to two bat-derived severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronaviruses. Although bats were likely the original host, animals sold at the Huanan seafood market in Wuhan might have been the intermediate host that enabled the emergence of the virus in humans. Under the electron microscope, the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus grips its receptor tighter than the virus behind the SARS outbreak in 2003 to 2004. The viral particle docks onto the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and initiates viral entry. This review discusses the various aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, its structure, pathophysiology, mechanism of interaction with human cells, virulence factors, and drug involved in the treatment of the disease.



Publication History

Publication Date:
18 October 2020 (online)

© .

Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Private Ltd.
A-12, Second Floor, Sector -2, NOIDA -201301, India