Analysis of Patterns of Adverse Transfusion Reactions and Management: A Novel Initiative toward Hemovigilance in a Teaching Hospital of South India
Objective Blood transfusion being a major lifesaving frontline procedure in majority of clinical wards, has a high potential with risk for adverse events ranging in severity, thus warranting optimal usage of blood. Continuous monitoring of adverse transfusion reaction (ATR) and analysis of the reactions can promote better comprehension of various contributing risk factors. Hemovigilance being a quality indicator with data system assists in ensuring quality and safe blood transfusion. The present study was designed to analyze the incidence and nature of adverse transfusion-associated events reported to the blood bank from our teaching hospital located in the remote part of South-East Coastal region with emphasis on corrective and preventive actions.
Materials and Methods The prospective study included all the ATR reported to our hospital blood bank over a period of 42 months. The transfusion reactions report forms filled by the clinicians were analyzed and the reactions were categorized into patterns. The associated risk factors for the reaction are evaluated with substantial laboratory and clinical parameters in reference to hemovigilance.
Results Among 19,800 transfusions, 189 transfusion reactions were encountered with a ratio of 10:0.9 with age ranging from 12 to 80, with female preponderance. Reactions associated with whole blood (WB) transfusion were common (50%, p = 0.002) followed by packed red blood cells transfusion (PRBC) (1.4%, p = 0.006) and platelets (0.8%, p = 0.1). Febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions were predominant patterns noted in 122 cases followed by allergic reactions in 43 cases with more commonly associated PRBC transfusion whereas hemolytic reactions showed association with WB transfusion. No delayed reactions or mortalities were encountered.
Conclusion The present study concludes with novelty showing the overall incidence of transfusion-associated reactions in the study domain is slightly higher than more advanced centers in India owing to lack of leukodepletion units which could enable to substantially retard the incidence of adverse events of transfusion as a general measure and febrile reactions in particular. Hemovigilance and pattern analysis of ATR provide scope for corrective and preventive action and give referral guidelines to prevent future recurrence.
02 September 2020 (online)
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